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The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Screening

Vickers, Andrew J. ; Eastham, James A. ; Scardino, Peter T. and Lilja, Hans LU orcid (2016) In Urology 91. p.12-18
Abstract

The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) recommendations on prostate cancer screening were developed in response to three limitations of previous screening guidelines: insufficient evidence base, failure to link screening with treatment, and lack of risk stratification. The objective of the recommendations is to provide a schema for prostate cancer screening that maximizes the benefits, in terms of reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality, and minimizes the harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We recommend the following schema for men choosing to be screened following informed decision-making: starting at age 45, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) without digital rectal examination. If PSA ≥ 3 ng/mL:... (More)

The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) recommendations on prostate cancer screening were developed in response to three limitations of previous screening guidelines: insufficient evidence base, failure to link screening with treatment, and lack of risk stratification. The objective of the recommendations is to provide a schema for prostate cancer screening that maximizes the benefits, in terms of reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality, and minimizes the harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We recommend the following schema for men choosing to be screened following informed decision-making: starting at age 45, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) without digital rectal examination. If PSA ≥ 3 ng/mL: consider prostate biopsy; if PSA ≥ 1 but < 3 ng/mL: return for PSA testing every 2-4 years; if PSA < 1 ng/mL: return for PSA testing at 6-10 years. PSA testing should end at age 60 for men with PSA ≤ 1 ng/ mL; at 70, unless a man is very healthy and has a higher than average PSA; at 75 for all men. The decision to biopsy a man with a PSA > 3 ng/mL should be based on a variety of factors including repeat blood draw for confirmatory testing of the PSA level, digital rectal examination results, and workup for benign disease. Additional reflex tests in blood such as a free-to-total PSA ratio, the Prostate Health Index, or 4Kscore, or urinary testing of PCA3, can also be informative in some patients. The best evidence suggests that more restricted indication for prostate biopsy and a more focused approach to pursue screening in men at highest risk of lethal cancer would retain most of the mortality benefits of aggressive screening schema, while importantly reducing harms from overdetection and overtreatment.

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author
; ; and
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
in
Urology
volume
91
pages
12 - 18
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • pmid:26850815
  • scopus:84960982124
ISSN
0090-4295
DOI
10.1016/j.urology.2015.12.054
language
English
LU publication?
no
additional info
Publisher Copyright: © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
id
c76e6b19-dd0e-4a22-b6d0-38eb49df6758
date added to LUP
2022-12-06 14:14:16
date last changed
2024-01-03 21:31:30
@article{c76e6b19-dd0e-4a22-b6d0-38eb49df6758,
  abstract     = {{<p>The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) recommendations on prostate cancer screening were developed in response to three limitations of previous screening guidelines: insufficient evidence base, failure to link screening with treatment, and lack of risk stratification. The objective of the recommendations is to provide a schema for prostate cancer screening that maximizes the benefits, in terms of reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality, and minimizes the harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We recommend the following schema for men choosing to be screened following informed decision-making: starting at age 45, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) without digital rectal examination. If PSA ≥ 3 ng/mL: consider prostate biopsy; if PSA ≥ 1 but &lt; 3 ng/mL: return for PSA testing every 2-4 years; if PSA &lt; 1 ng/mL: return for PSA testing at 6-10 years. PSA testing should end at age 60 for men with PSA ≤ 1 ng/ mL; at 70, unless a man is very healthy and has a higher than average PSA; at 75 for all men. The decision to biopsy a man with a PSA &gt; 3 ng/mL should be based on a variety of factors including repeat blood draw for confirmatory testing of the PSA level, digital rectal examination results, and workup for benign disease. Additional reflex tests in blood such as a free-to-total PSA ratio, the Prostate Health Index, or 4Kscore, or urinary testing of PCA3, can also be informative in some patients. The best evidence suggests that more restricted indication for prostate biopsy and a more focused approach to pursue screening in men at highest risk of lethal cancer would retain most of the mortality benefits of aggressive screening schema, while importantly reducing harms from overdetection and overtreatment.</p>}},
  author       = {{Vickers, Andrew J. and Eastham, James A. and Scardino, Peter T. and Lilja, Hans}},
  issn         = {{0090-4295}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  month        = {{05}},
  pages        = {{12--18}},
  publisher    = {{Elsevier}},
  series       = {{Urology}},
  title        = {{The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Screening}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2015.12.054}},
  doi          = {{10.1016/j.urology.2015.12.054}},
  volume       = {{91}},
  year         = {{2016}},
}