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Health Risk Assessment of Nitrate in Drinking Water with Potential Source Identification : A Case Study in Almaty, Kazakhstan

Sailaukhanuly, Yerbolat ; Azat, Seitkhan ; Kunarbekova, Makhabbat ; Tovassarov, Adylkhan ; Toshtay, Kainaubek ; Tauanov, Zhandos ; Carlsen, Lars and Berndtsson, Ronny LU orcid (2024) In International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 21(1).
Abstract

Infant mortality in Kazakhstan is six times higher compared with the EU. There are several reasons for this, but a partial reason might be that less than 30% of Kazakhstan's population has access to safe water and sanitation and more than 57% uses polluted groundwater from wells that do not comply with international standards. For example, nitrate pollution in surface and groundwater continues to increase due to intensified agriculture and the discharge of untreated wastewater, causing concerns regarding environmental and human health. For this reason, drinking water samples were collected from the water supply distribution network in eight districts of Almaty, Kazakhstan, and water quality constituents, including nitrate, were... (More)

Infant mortality in Kazakhstan is six times higher compared with the EU. There are several reasons for this, but a partial reason might be that less than 30% of Kazakhstan's population has access to safe water and sanitation and more than 57% uses polluted groundwater from wells that do not comply with international standards. For example, nitrate pollution in surface and groundwater continues to increase due to intensified agriculture and the discharge of untreated wastewater, causing concerns regarding environmental and human health. For this reason, drinking water samples were collected from the water supply distribution network in eight districts of Almaty, Kazakhstan, and water quality constituents, including nitrate, were analyzed. In several districts, the nitrate concentration was above the WHO and Kazakhstan's maximum permissible limits for drinking water. The spatial distribution of high nitrate concentration in drinking water was shown to be strongly correlated with areas that are supplied with groundwater, whereas areas with lower nitrate levels are supplied with surface water sources. Based on source identification, it was shown that groundwater is likely polluted by mainly domestic wastewater. The health risk for infants, children, teenagers, and adults was assessed based on chronic daily intake, and the hazard quotient (HQ) of nitrate intake from drinking water was determined. The non-carcinogenic risks increased in the following manner: adult < teenager < child < infant. For infants and children, the HQ was greater than the acceptable level and higher than that of other age groups, thus pointing to infants and children as the most vulnerable age group due to drinking water intake in the study area. Different water management options are suggested to improve the health situation of the population now drinking nitrate-polluted groundwater.

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author
; ; ; ; ; ; and
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Adult, Child, Infant, Adolescent, Humans, Nitrates, Drinking Water, Kazakhstan, Wastewater, Risk Assessment, Water Quality
in
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
volume
21
issue
1
article number
55
pages
14 pages
publisher
MDPI AG
external identifiers
  • scopus:85183081764
  • pmid:38248520
ISSN
1660-4601
DOI
10.3390/ijerph21010055
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
c89cf1ff-dfaa-4659-a08f-eeb91994b45c
date added to LUP
2024-02-01 07:58:36
date last changed
2024-05-16 16:12:33
@article{c89cf1ff-dfaa-4659-a08f-eeb91994b45c,
  abstract     = {{<p>Infant mortality in Kazakhstan is six times higher compared with the EU. There are several reasons for this, but a partial reason might be that less than 30% of Kazakhstan's population has access to safe water and sanitation and more than 57% uses polluted groundwater from wells that do not comply with international standards. For example, nitrate pollution in surface and groundwater continues to increase due to intensified agriculture and the discharge of untreated wastewater, causing concerns regarding environmental and human health. For this reason, drinking water samples were collected from the water supply distribution network in eight districts of Almaty, Kazakhstan, and water quality constituents, including nitrate, were analyzed. In several districts, the nitrate concentration was above the WHO and Kazakhstan's maximum permissible limits for drinking water. The spatial distribution of high nitrate concentration in drinking water was shown to be strongly correlated with areas that are supplied with groundwater, whereas areas with lower nitrate levels are supplied with surface water sources. Based on source identification, it was shown that groundwater is likely polluted by mainly domestic wastewater. The health risk for infants, children, teenagers, and adults was assessed based on chronic daily intake, and the hazard quotient (HQ) of nitrate intake from drinking water was determined. The non-carcinogenic risks increased in the following manner: adult &lt; teenager &lt; child &lt; infant. For infants and children, the HQ was greater than the acceptable level and higher than that of other age groups, thus pointing to infants and children as the most vulnerable age group due to drinking water intake in the study area. Different water management options are suggested to improve the health situation of the population now drinking nitrate-polluted groundwater.</p>}},
  author       = {{Sailaukhanuly, Yerbolat and Azat, Seitkhan and Kunarbekova, Makhabbat and Tovassarov, Adylkhan and Toshtay, Kainaubek and Tauanov, Zhandos and Carlsen, Lars and Berndtsson, Ronny}},
  issn         = {{1660-4601}},
  keywords     = {{Adult; Child; Infant; Adolescent; Humans; Nitrates; Drinking Water; Kazakhstan; Wastewater; Risk Assessment; Water Quality}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{1}},
  publisher    = {{MDPI AG}},
  series       = {{International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health}},
  title        = {{Health Risk Assessment of Nitrate in Drinking Water with Potential Source Identification : A Case Study in Almaty, Kazakhstan}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph21010055}},
  doi          = {{10.3390/ijerph21010055}},
  volume       = {{21}},
  year         = {{2024}},
}