Advanced

Testicular biopsy : clinical practice and interpretation

Dohle, Gert R; Elzanaty, Saad LU and van Casteren, Niels J (2012) In Asian Journal of Andrology 14(1). p.88-93
Abstract

Testicular biopsy was considered the cornerstone of male infertility diagnosis for many years in men with unexplained infertility and azoospermia. Recent guidelines for male infertility have limited the indications for a diagnostic testicular biopsy to the confirmation of obstructive azoospermia in men with normal size testes and normal reproductive hormones. Nowadays, testicular biopsies are mainly performed for sperm harvesting in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Testicular biopsy is also performed in men with risk factors for testicular malignancy. In a subgroup of infertile men, there is an increased risk for carcinoma in situ of the testis, especially in men with a history of... (More)

Testicular biopsy was considered the cornerstone of male infertility diagnosis for many years in men with unexplained infertility and azoospermia. Recent guidelines for male infertility have limited the indications for a diagnostic testicular biopsy to the confirmation of obstructive azoospermia in men with normal size testes and normal reproductive hormones. Nowadays, testicular biopsies are mainly performed for sperm harvesting in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Testicular biopsy is also performed in men with risk factors for testicular malignancy. In a subgroup of infertile men, there is an increased risk for carcinoma in situ of the testis, especially in men with a history of cryptorchidism and testicular malignancy and in men with testicular atrophy. Ultrasonographic abnormalities, such as testicular microlithiasis, inhomogeneous parenchyma and lesions of the testes, further increase the risk of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in these men. For an accurate histological classification, proper tissue handling, fixation, preparation of the specimen and evaluation are needed. A standardized approach to testicular biopsy is recommended. In addition, approaches to the detection of CIS of the testis testicular immunohistochemistry are mandatory. In this mini-review, we describe the current indications for testicular biopsies in the diagnosis and management of male infertility.

(Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
keywords
Biopsy, Carcinoma in Situ, Humans, Infertility, Male, Male, Prognosis, Risk Factors, Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic, Testicular Neoplasms, Testis
in
Asian Journal of Andrology
volume
14
issue
1
pages
6 pages
publisher
Nature Publishing Group
external identifiers
  • scopus:84855468775
ISSN
1008-682X
DOI
10.1038/aja.2011.57
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
cda5f2a0-0a59-4a47-b876-5a8d99d5d5dd
date added to LUP
2017-02-28 13:50:49
date last changed
2017-07-23 05:25:36
@article{cda5f2a0-0a59-4a47-b876-5a8d99d5d5dd,
  abstract     = {<p>Testicular biopsy was considered the cornerstone of male infertility diagnosis for many years in men with unexplained infertility and azoospermia. Recent guidelines for male infertility have limited the indications for a diagnostic testicular biopsy to the confirmation of obstructive azoospermia in men with normal size testes and normal reproductive hormones. Nowadays, testicular biopsies are mainly performed for sperm harvesting in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Testicular biopsy is also performed in men with risk factors for testicular malignancy. In a subgroup of infertile men, there is an increased risk for carcinoma in situ of the testis, especially in men with a history of cryptorchidism and testicular malignancy and in men with testicular atrophy. Ultrasonographic abnormalities, such as testicular microlithiasis, inhomogeneous parenchyma and lesions of the testes, further increase the risk of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in these men. For an accurate histological classification, proper tissue handling, fixation, preparation of the specimen and evaluation are needed. A standardized approach to testicular biopsy is recommended. In addition, approaches to the detection of CIS of the testis testicular immunohistochemistry are mandatory. In this mini-review, we describe the current indications for testicular biopsies in the diagnosis and management of male infertility.</p>},
  author       = {Dohle, Gert R and Elzanaty, Saad and van Casteren, Niels J},
  issn         = {1008-682X},
  keyword      = {Biopsy,Carcinoma in Situ,Humans,Infertility, Male,Male,Prognosis,Risk Factors,Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic,Testicular Neoplasms,Testis},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {88--93},
  publisher    = {Nature Publishing Group},
  series       = {Asian Journal of Andrology},
  title        = {Testicular biopsy : clinical practice and interpretation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/aja.2011.57},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2012},
}