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Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is more effective in suppressing cytokine-induced catabolism in cartilage-synovium co-culture than in cartilage monoculture

Mehta, Shikhar ; Akhtar, Sumayyah ; Porter, Ryan M. ; Önnerfjord, Patrik LU and Bajpayee, Ambika G. (2019) In Arthritis Research and Therapy 21(1).
Abstract

Background: Most in vitro studies of potential osteoarthritis (OA) therapies have used cartilage monocultures, even though synovium is a key player in mediating joint inflammation and, thereby, cartilage degeneration. In the case of interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibition using its receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), like chondrocytes, synoviocytes also express IL-1 receptors that influence intra-articular IL-1 signaling and IL-1Ra efficacy. The short residence time of IL-1Ra after intra-articular injection requires the application of frequent dosing, which is clinically impractical and comes with increased risk of infection; these limitations motivate the development of effective drug delivery strategies that can maintain sustained intra-articular... (More)

Background: Most in vitro studies of potential osteoarthritis (OA) therapies have used cartilage monocultures, even though synovium is a key player in mediating joint inflammation and, thereby, cartilage degeneration. In the case of interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibition using its receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), like chondrocytes, synoviocytes also express IL-1 receptors that influence intra-articular IL-1 signaling and IL-1Ra efficacy. The short residence time of IL-1Ra after intra-articular injection requires the application of frequent dosing, which is clinically impractical and comes with increased risk of infection; these limitations motivate the development of effective drug delivery strategies that can maintain sustained intra-articular IL-1Ra concentrations with only a single injection. The goals of this study were to assess how the presence of synovium in IL-1-challenged cartilage-synovium co-culture impacts the time-dependent biological response of single and sustained doses of IL-1Ra, and to understand the mechanisms underlying any co-culture effects. Methods: Bovine cartilage explants with or without synovium were treated with IL-1α followed by single or multiple doses of IL-1Ra. Effects of IL-1Ra in rescuing IL-1α-induced catabolism in cartilage monoculture and cartilage-synovium co-culture were assessed by measuring loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen using DMMB (dimethyl-methylene blue) and hydroxyproline assays, respectively, nitric oxide (NO) release using Griess assay, cell viability by fluorescence staining, metabolic activity using Alamar blue, and proteoglycan biosynthesis by radiolabel incorporation. Day 2 conditioned media from mono and co-cultures were analyzed by mass spectrometry and cytokine array to identify proteins unique to co-culture that contribute to biological crosstalk. Results: A single dose of IL-1Ra was ineffective, and a sustained dose was necessary to significantly suppress IL-1α-induced catabolism as observed by enhanced suppression of GAG and collagen loss, NO synthesis, rescue of chondrocyte metabolism, viability, and GAG biosynthesis rates. The synovium exhibited a protective role as the effects of single-dose IL-1Ra were significantly enhanced in cartilage-synovium co-culture and were accompanied by release of anti-catabolic factors IL-4, carbonic anhydrase-3, and matrilin-3. A total of 26 unique proteins were identified in conditioned media from co-cultures, while expression levels of many additional proteins important to cartilage homeostasis were altered in co-culture compared to monocultures; principal component analysis revealed distinct clustering between co-culture and cartilage and synovium monocultures, thereby confirming significant crosstalk. Conclusions: IL-1Ra suppresses cytokine-induced catabolism in cartilage more effectively in the presence of synovium, which was associated with endogenous production of anti-catabolic factors. Biological crosstalk between cartilage and synovium is significant; thus, their co-cultures should better model the intra-articular actions of potential OA therapeutics. Additionally, chondroprotective effects of IL-1Ra require sustained drug levels, underscoring the need for developing drug delivery strategies to enhance its joint residence time following a single intra-articular injection.

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organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Cartilage-synovium co-culture, Crosstalk, IL-1, IL-1Ra, Nitric oxide, Sustained dose
in
Arthritis Research and Therapy
volume
21
issue
1
article number
238
publisher
BioMed Central
external identifiers
  • scopus:85074960829
  • pmid:31722745
ISSN
1478-6354
DOI
10.1186/s13075-019-2003-y
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
cfaaef1e-4b37-4315-a5ef-3be9103e8505
date added to LUP
2019-11-29 08:04:20
date last changed
2020-01-22 07:49:03
@article{cfaaef1e-4b37-4315-a5ef-3be9103e8505,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Most in vitro studies of potential osteoarthritis (OA) therapies have used cartilage monocultures, even though synovium is a key player in mediating joint inflammation and, thereby, cartilage degeneration. In the case of interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibition using its receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), like chondrocytes, synoviocytes also express IL-1 receptors that influence intra-articular IL-1 signaling and IL-1Ra efficacy. The short residence time of IL-1Ra after intra-articular injection requires the application of frequent dosing, which is clinically impractical and comes with increased risk of infection; these limitations motivate the development of effective drug delivery strategies that can maintain sustained intra-articular IL-1Ra concentrations with only a single injection. The goals of this study were to assess how the presence of synovium in IL-1-challenged cartilage-synovium co-culture impacts the time-dependent biological response of single and sustained doses of IL-1Ra, and to understand the mechanisms underlying any co-culture effects. Methods: Bovine cartilage explants with or without synovium were treated with IL-1α followed by single or multiple doses of IL-1Ra. Effects of IL-1Ra in rescuing IL-1α-induced catabolism in cartilage monoculture and cartilage-synovium co-culture were assessed by measuring loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen using DMMB (dimethyl-methylene blue) and hydroxyproline assays, respectively, nitric oxide (NO) release using Griess assay, cell viability by fluorescence staining, metabolic activity using Alamar blue, and proteoglycan biosynthesis by radiolabel incorporation. Day 2 conditioned media from mono and co-cultures were analyzed by mass spectrometry and cytokine array to identify proteins unique to co-culture that contribute to biological crosstalk. Results: A single dose of IL-1Ra was ineffective, and a sustained dose was necessary to significantly suppress IL-1α-induced catabolism as observed by enhanced suppression of GAG and collagen loss, NO synthesis, rescue of chondrocyte metabolism, viability, and GAG biosynthesis rates. The synovium exhibited a protective role as the effects of single-dose IL-1Ra were significantly enhanced in cartilage-synovium co-culture and were accompanied by release of anti-catabolic factors IL-4, carbonic anhydrase-3, and matrilin-3. A total of 26 unique proteins were identified in conditioned media from co-cultures, while expression levels of many additional proteins important to cartilage homeostasis were altered in co-culture compared to monocultures; principal component analysis revealed distinct clustering between co-culture and cartilage and synovium monocultures, thereby confirming significant crosstalk. Conclusions: IL-1Ra suppresses cytokine-induced catabolism in cartilage more effectively in the presence of synovium, which was associated with endogenous production of anti-catabolic factors. Biological crosstalk between cartilage and synovium is significant; thus, their co-cultures should better model the intra-articular actions of potential OA therapeutics. Additionally, chondroprotective effects of IL-1Ra require sustained drug levels, underscoring the need for developing drug delivery strategies to enhance its joint residence time following a single intra-articular injection.</p>},
  author       = {Mehta, Shikhar and Akhtar, Sumayyah and Porter, Ryan M. and Önnerfjord, Patrik and Bajpayee, Ambika G.},
  issn         = {1478-6354},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {11},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central},
  series       = {Arthritis Research and Therapy},
  title        = {Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is more effective in suppressing cytokine-induced catabolism in cartilage-synovium co-culture than in cartilage monoculture},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-019-2003-y},
  doi          = {10.1186/s13075-019-2003-y},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2019},
}