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Mellan systerskap och behandling : Omförhandlingar inom ett förändrat stödfält för våldsutsatta kvinnor

Helmersson, Sara LU (2017)
Abstract (Swedish)
Stöd till våldsutsatta kvinnor har historiskt sett varit en uppgift för ideellt arbetande kvinnor på kvinnojourer. De senaste två decennierna har kommunernas ansvar för våldsutsatta kvinnor och barn som bevittnat våld förtydligats. Runt om i landet har kommuner gjort satsningar för att höja kompetensen kring våld i nära relationer och för att förbättra samverkan. I vissa fall har personer med ett övergripande ansvar för frågan anställts. Flera kommuner har initierat specialiserade mottagningar för våld i nära relationer, ibland riktade till kvinnor och män som både våldsutsatta och förövare. Inrättandet av dessa kommunala enheter bryter av mot kvinnojourernas etablerade arbetssätt och problemförståelser.
Det övergripande syftet med... (More)
Stöd till våldsutsatta kvinnor har historiskt sett varit en uppgift för ideellt arbetande kvinnor på kvinnojourer. De senaste två decennierna har kommunernas ansvar för våldsutsatta kvinnor och barn som bevittnat våld förtydligats. Runt om i landet har kommuner gjort satsningar för att höja kompetensen kring våld i nära relationer och för att förbättra samverkan. I vissa fall har personer med ett övergripande ansvar för frågan anställts. Flera kommuner har initierat specialiserade mottagningar för våld i nära relationer, ibland riktade till kvinnor och män som både våldsutsatta och förövare. Inrättandet av dessa kommunala enheter bryter av mot kvinnojourernas etablerade arbetssätt och problemförståelser.
Det övergripande syftet med denna doktorsavhandling är att undersöka arbetet med våldsutsatta kvinnor inom detta ”stödfält” och fördjupa kunskapen om interna spänningar samt kopplingar mellan lokala stödpraktiker och olika sätt att förstå våld. Med hjälp av ett etnografiskt inspirerat fältarbete har flera typer av empiriskt material samlats in. Empirin bygger på 24 intervjuer, enskilda och i grupp, med 32 personer från fem kvinnojourer och tre specialenheter, deltagande observationer på en kvinnojour och en specialenhet samt dokument. Dessutom har ett enkätmaterial samlats in. Enkäten distribuerades till 320 verksamheter: kvinnojourer, brottsofferjourer och kommunala enheter. 207 besvarade enkäter kvarstod efter att ofullständiga svar tagits bort.
Studien visar att frågan om våld mot kvinnor har institutionaliserats i svensk politik och att två våldförståelser – en strukturell könsmaktsförståelse och en relationell familjevåldsförståelse – präglar frågans framväxt. Jourkvinnor inom lokala jourer hade en tung administrativ arbetsbörda och ägnade förhållandevis lite tid åt opinionsbildning. De arbetade nära socialtjänsten och arbetsuppgifter som traditionellt inte förknippas med ideella organisationer – exempelvis journalföring och orosanmälningar om barn – föreföll okontroversiella. Kärnvärden såsom anonymitet för kvinnor, systerskap och oberoende jourer utmanades. Behandling i form av samtal framstod som den främsta insatsen på de kommunala specialenheterna och bland behandlarna fanns ett avståndstagande från praktiskt stödarbete. Det gjordes en åtskillnad mellan ”professionell samtalsbehandling”, underbyggd av olika arbetsmetoder och manualer, och kvinnojourernas arbete som framställdes som centrerat kring praktiskt omhändertagande och boende. En liknande åtskillnad gjordes mellan den egna könsintegrerade ansatsen och stödverksamheter för bara kvinnor. Inom specialenheterna framträdde vissa grupper av stödsökande som mer ideala än andra i relation till verksamheternas inriktning. Två, stundtals motstridiga, stödideal genomsyrade arbetet med våldsutsatta kvinnor på stödfältet: ett kvinnoemancipatoriskt och ett behandlingsfokuserat. Det kvinnoemancipatoriska stödidealet handlade om att frigöra kvinnor genom att tro på deras livsberättelser, avlasta dem från skuld och främja det egna beslutsfattandet. Det behandlingsfokuserade stödidealet syftade till att kvinnor skulle ta ansvar för sina relationer, skydd av barn och för att förändra sitt beteende. Vidare visar studien att vissa kvinnor riskerade att exkluderas från stödinsatser på stödfältet medan andra inte ansågs lämpliga att arbeta som jourkvinnor. Den övergripande analysen pekade mot att stödfältet präglades av en relationell familjevåldsförståelse, snarare än en könsmaktsanalys, och att stödfältet kommit att slukas upp av socialtjänsten. (Less)
Abstract
In Sweden, support for abused women has historically been a task for female volunteers in women’s shelters. However, due to amendments in the Social Services Act, some local municipalities have in recent years initiated services for people with experience of violence in intimate relationships, often women and men, abused as well as abusers. These specialised public sector units have an approach to the question of violence that differs from “traditional” feminist ideas associated with the women’s shelter movement. The main purpose of this research was to examine local support practices in this particular “support field” and to further the knowledge about underlying tensions and the linkages to different understandings of violence against... (More)
In Sweden, support for abused women has historically been a task for female volunteers in women’s shelters. However, due to amendments in the Social Services Act, some local municipalities have in recent years initiated services for people with experience of violence in intimate relationships, often women and men, abused as well as abusers. These specialised public sector units have an approach to the question of violence that differs from “traditional” feminist ideas associated with the women’s shelter movement. The main purpose of this research was to examine local support practices in this particular “support field” and to further the knowledge about underlying tensions and the linkages to different understandings of violence against women. The research questions focused on (1) dominating understandings of the problem and how these were expressed and challenged within the support field, (2) local support practices in regard to legal and organisational conditions, (3) hierarchies, boundaries, sense of community and exclusions (4) overarching changes in the support field and consequences for support seekers and support providers. Inspired by an ethnographic approach, a range of qualitative methods were used: individual and group interviews, participatory observations and retrieval of policy documents. 24 interviews, with 32 people from five shelters and three specialised units, were completed. The participatory observations were performed in two sites. Finally, a web based survey was distributed to 320 recipients: women’s shelters, local crime victim support organisations and public sector specialised units. After removing incomplete surveys, 207 filled out surveys remained. The overall response rate was 65 %. A theoretical framework based on concepts such as field, doxa, capital and boundary work was used. The results of the study showed that the question of violence against women has been institutionalised in Swedish policies and that two dominating understandings were present: a gender power perspective and a relational perspective. The results pointed out that local women’s shelters worked in close partnership with the public sector and were doing “social services-tasks”. The shelter staff had a heavy administrative workload and spent little time on influencing public opinion. Hence, core ideals such as independence, anonymity for women and sisterhood were challenged. Among professionals in the specialised units counselling was favoured over practical tasks. The professionals framed counselling as professional, whereas women’s shelter work was often understood as practical and unskilled. The gender mixed approach of the specialised units was favoured over interventions for women only. Services for abused women in the support field were informed by two, sometimes conflicting, support ideals: (1) aimed at emancipating women, (2) ai med at changing women. Furthermore, processes of “us and them” were identified in the support field and certain groups of women were potentially excluded from help as well as excluded from becoming shelter workers. The overall analysis of the thesis pointed to a shift from gender power analysis to a relational perspective and that the support field has been consumed by the social services. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • PhD Viveka Enander, Gothenburg University
organization
alternative title
Between Sisterhood and Treatment : Renegotiations in a Changed Support Field for Abused Women
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Våld i nära relationer, våldsutsatta kvinnor, kvinnojour, socialtjänsten, stöd, samtal, behandling, violence in intimate relationships, abused women, women's shelter, social services, support, counselling
edition
Lund Dissertations in Social Work
pages
254 pages
defense location
Edens hörsal (auditorium), Paradisgatan 5H, Lund
defense date
2017-03-10 10:15
ISBN
978-91-89604-57-5
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
d31a5a7b-ee11-4917-95b2-057b1cc92d08
date added to LUP
2017-02-16 09:27:03
date last changed
2017-04-06 14:00:21
@phdthesis{d31a5a7b-ee11-4917-95b2-057b1cc92d08,
  abstract     = {In Sweden, support for abused women has historically been a task for female volunteers in women’s shelters. However, due to amendments in the Social Services Act, some local municipalities have in recent years initiated services for people with experience of violence in intimate relationships, often women and men, abused as well as abusers. These specialised public sector units have an approach to the question of violence that differs from “traditional” feminist ideas associated with the women’s shelter movement. The main purpose of this research was to examine local support practices in this particular “support field” and to further the knowledge about underlying tensions and the linkages to different understandings of violence against women. The research questions focused on (1) dominating understandings of the problem and how these were expressed and challenged within the support field, (2) local support practices in regard to legal and organisational conditions, (3) hierarchies, boundaries, sense of community and exclusions (4) overarching changes in the support field and consequences for support seekers and support providers. Inspired by an ethnographic approach, a range of qualitative methods were used: individual and group interviews, participatory observations and retrieval of policy documents. 24 interviews, with 32 people from five shelters and three specialised units, were completed. The participatory observations were performed in two sites. Finally, a web based survey was distributed to 320 recipients: women’s shelters, local crime victim support organisations and public sector specialised units. After removing incomplete surveys, 207 filled out surveys remained. The overall response rate was 65 %. A theoretical framework based on concepts such as field, doxa, capital and boundary work was used. The results of the study showed that the question of violence against women has been institutionalised in Swedish policies and that two dominating understandings were present: a gender power perspective and a relational perspective. The results pointed out that local women’s shelters worked in close partnership with the public sector and were doing “social services-tasks”. The shelter staff had a heavy administrative workload and spent little time on influencing public opinion. Hence, core ideals such as independence, anonymity for women and sisterhood were challenged. Among professionals in the specialised units counselling was favoured over practical tasks. The professionals framed counselling as professional, whereas women’s shelter work was often understood as practical and unskilled. The gender mixed approach of the specialised units was favoured over interventions for women only. Services for abused women in the support field were informed by two, sometimes conflicting, support ideals: (1) aimed at emancipating women, (2) ai med at changing women. Furthermore, processes of “us and them” were identified in the support field and certain groups of women were potentially excluded from help as well as excluded from becoming shelter workers. The overall analysis of the thesis pointed to a shift from gender power analysis to a relational perspective and that the support field has been consumed by the social services.},
  author       = {Helmersson, Sara},
  isbn         = {978-91-89604-57-5},
  keyword      = {Våld i nära relationer,våldsutsatta kvinnor,kvinnojour,socialtjänsten,stöd,samtal,behandling,violence in intimate relationships,abused women,women's shelter,social services,support,counselling },
  language     = {swe},
  month        = {02},
  pages        = {254},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Mellan systerskap och behandling : Omförhandlingar inom ett förändrat stödfält för våldsutsatta kvinnor},
  year         = {2017},
}