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The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) for children with cerebral palsy: scale development and evidence of validity and reliability

Eliasson, Ann-Christin ; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena ; Rosblad, Birgit ; Beckung, Eva ; Arner, Marianne LU ; Ohrvall, Ann-Marie and Rosenbaum, Peter (2006) In Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 48(7). p.549-554
Abstract
The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) has been developed to classify how children with cerebral palsy (CP) use their hands when handling objects in daily activities. The classification is designed to reflect the child's typical manual performance, not the child's maximal capacity. It classifies the collaborative use of both hands together. Validation was based on the experience within an expert group, a review of the literature, and thorough analysis of children across a spectrum of function. Discussions continued until consensus was reached, first about the constructs, then about the content of the five levels. Parents and therapists were interviewed about the content and the description of levels. Reliability was tested between... (More)
The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) has been developed to classify how children with cerebral palsy (CP) use their hands when handling objects in daily activities. The classification is designed to reflect the child's typical manual performance, not the child's maximal capacity. It classifies the collaborative use of both hands together. Validation was based on the experience within an expert group, a review of the literature, and thorough analysis of children across a spectrum of function. Discussions continued until consensus was reached, first about the constructs, then about the content of the five levels. Parents and therapists were interviewed about the content and the description of levels. Reliability was tested between pairs of therapists for 168 children (70 females, 98 males; with hemiplegia [n=52], diplegia [n=70], tetraplegia [n=19], ataxia [n=6], dyskinesia [n=19], and unspecified CP [n=2]) between 4 and 18 years and between 25 parents and their children's therapists. The results demonstrated that MACS has good validity and reliability. The intraclass correlation coefficient between therapists was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.96-0.98), and between parents and therapist was 0.96 (0.89-0.98), indicating excellent agreement. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
volume
48
issue
7
pages
549 - 554
publisher
John Wiley & Sons
external identifiers
  • pmid:16780622
  • wos:000239128100003
  • scopus:33745282965
ISSN
0012-1622
DOI
10.1111/j.1469-8749.2006.tb01313.x
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
d5221036-313c-4e19-95d9-525d4aa7c1a6 (old id 401395)
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 11:52:07
date last changed
2019-11-20 01:55:36
@article{d5221036-313c-4e19-95d9-525d4aa7c1a6,
  abstract     = {The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) has been developed to classify how children with cerebral palsy (CP) use their hands when handling objects in daily activities. The classification is designed to reflect the child's typical manual performance, not the child's maximal capacity. It classifies the collaborative use of both hands together. Validation was based on the experience within an expert group, a review of the literature, and thorough analysis of children across a spectrum of function. Discussions continued until consensus was reached, first about the constructs, then about the content of the five levels. Parents and therapists were interviewed about the content and the description of levels. Reliability was tested between pairs of therapists for 168 children (70 females, 98 males; with hemiplegia [n=52], diplegia [n=70], tetraplegia [n=19], ataxia [n=6], dyskinesia [n=19], and unspecified CP [n=2]) between 4 and 18 years and between 25 parents and their children's therapists. The results demonstrated that MACS has good validity and reliability. The intraclass correlation coefficient between therapists was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.96-0.98), and between parents and therapist was 0.96 (0.89-0.98), indicating excellent agreement.},
  author       = {Eliasson, Ann-Christin and Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena and Rosblad, Birgit and Beckung, Eva and Arner, Marianne and Ohrvall, Ann-Marie and Rosenbaum, Peter},
  issn         = {0012-1622},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {549--554},
  publisher    = {John Wiley & Sons},
  series       = {Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology},
  title        = {The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) for children with cerebral palsy: scale development and evidence of validity and reliability},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2006.tb01313.x},
  doi          = {10.1111/j.1469-8749.2006.tb01313.x},
  volume       = {48},
  year         = {2006},
}