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Population genetic structure, differentiation, and diversity in Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers : roles of population size and immigration

Tinnert, Jon; Hellgren, Olof LU ; Lindberg, Jenny LU ; Koch-Schmidt, Per and Forsman, Anders (2016) In Ecology and Evolution 6(21). p.7831-7846
Abstract

Genetic diversity within and among populations and species is influenced by complex demographic and evolutionary processes. Despite extensive research, there is no consensus regarding how landscape structure, spatial distribution, gene flow, and population dynamics impact genetic composition of natural populations. Here, we used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to investigate effects of population size, geographic isolation, immigration, and gene flow on genetic structure, divergence, and diversity in populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) from 20 sampling locations in southern Sweden. Analyses of 1564 AFLP markers revealed low to moderate levels of genetic diversity (PPL = 59.5–90.1;... (More)

Genetic diversity within and among populations and species is influenced by complex demographic and evolutionary processes. Despite extensive research, there is no consensus regarding how landscape structure, spatial distribution, gene flow, and population dynamics impact genetic composition of natural populations. Here, we used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to investigate effects of population size, geographic isolation, immigration, and gene flow on genetic structure, divergence, and diversity in populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) from 20 sampling locations in southern Sweden. Analyses of 1564 AFLP markers revealed low to moderate levels of genetic diversity (PPL = 59.5–90.1; Hj = 0.23–0.32) within and significant divergence among sampling localities. This suggests that evolution of functional traits in response to divergent selection is possible and that gene flow is restricted. Genetic diversity increased with population size and with increasing proportion of long-winged phenotypes (a proxy of recent immigration) across populations on the island of Öland, but not on the mainland. Our data further suggested that the open water separating Öland from the mainland acts as a dispersal barrier that restricts migration and leads to genetic divergence among regions. Isolation by distance was evident for short interpopulation distances on the mainland, but gradually disappeared as populations separated by longer distances were included. Results illustrate that integrating ecological and molecular data is key to identifying drivers of population genetic structure in natural populations. Our findings also underscore the importance of landscape structure and spatial sampling scheme for conclusions regarding the role of gene flow and isolation by distance.

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author
organization
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Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
dispersal, evolution, gene flow, Orthoptera, polymorphism, population divergence, Tetrix subulata
in
Ecology and Evolution
volume
6
issue
21
pages
16 pages
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • scopus:84990964599
  • wos:000387120800024
ISSN
2045-7758
DOI
10.1002/ece3.2520
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
d8190386-f727-4cd3-9e92-a28b28a49c97
date added to LUP
2016-11-21 12:08:56
date last changed
2017-03-29 16:30:48
@article{d8190386-f727-4cd3-9e92-a28b28a49c97,
  abstract     = {<p>Genetic diversity within and among populations and species is influenced by complex demographic and evolutionary processes. Despite extensive research, there is no consensus regarding how landscape structure, spatial distribution, gene flow, and population dynamics impact genetic composition of natural populations. Here, we used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to investigate effects of population size, geographic isolation, immigration, and gene flow on genetic structure, divergence, and diversity in populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) from 20 sampling locations in southern Sweden. Analyses of 1564 AFLP markers revealed low to moderate levels of genetic diversity (PPL = 59.5–90.1; Hj = 0.23–0.32) within and significant divergence among sampling localities. This suggests that evolution of functional traits in response to divergent selection is possible and that gene flow is restricted. Genetic diversity increased with population size and with increasing proportion of long-winged phenotypes (a proxy of recent immigration) across populations on the island of Öland, but not on the mainland. Our data further suggested that the open water separating Öland from the mainland acts as a dispersal barrier that restricts migration and leads to genetic divergence among regions. Isolation by distance was evident for short interpopulation distances on the mainland, but gradually disappeared as populations separated by longer distances were included. Results illustrate that integrating ecological and molecular data is key to identifying drivers of population genetic structure in natural populations. Our findings also underscore the importance of landscape structure and spatial sampling scheme for conclusions regarding the role of gene flow and isolation by distance.</p>},
  author       = {Tinnert, Jon and Hellgren, Olof and Lindberg, Jenny and Koch-Schmidt, Per and Forsman, Anders},
  issn         = {2045-7758},
  keyword      = {dispersal,evolution,gene flow,Orthoptera,polymorphism,population divergence,Tetrix subulata},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {11},
  number       = {21},
  pages        = {7831--7846},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Ecology and Evolution},
  title        = {Population genetic structure, differentiation, and diversity in Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers : roles of population size and immigration},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2520},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2016},
}