Skip to main content

Lund University Publications

LUND UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

Plasma and Urine Free Glycosaminoglycans as Monitoring Biomarkers in Nonmetastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma—A Prospective Cohort Study

Gatto, Francesco ; Dabestani, Saeed LU ; Bratulic, Sinisa ; Limeta, Angelo ; Maccari, Francesca ; Galeotti, Fabio ; Volpi, Nicola ; Stierner, Ulrika ; Nielsen, Jens and Lundstam, Sven (2022) In European Urology Open Science 42. p.30-39
Abstract

Background: No liquid biomarkers are approved in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), making early detection of recurrence in surgically treated nonmetastatic (M0) patients dependent on radiological imaging. Urine- and plasma free glycosaminoglycan profiles—or free GAGomes—are promising biomarkers reflective of RCC metabolism. Objective: To explore whether free GAGomes could detect M0 RCC recurrence noninvasively. Design, setting, and participants: Between June 2016 and February 2021, we enrolled a prospective consecutive series of patients elected for (1) partial or radical nephrectomy for clinical M0 RCC (cohort 1) or (2) first-line therapy following RCC metachronous metastatic recurrence (cohort 2) at Sahlgrenska University Hospital,... (More)

Background: No liquid biomarkers are approved in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), making early detection of recurrence in surgically treated nonmetastatic (M0) patients dependent on radiological imaging. Urine- and plasma free glycosaminoglycan profiles—or free GAGomes—are promising biomarkers reflective of RCC metabolism. Objective: To explore whether free GAGomes could detect M0 RCC recurrence noninvasively. Design, setting, and participants: Between June 2016 and February 2021, we enrolled a prospective consecutive series of patients elected for (1) partial or radical nephrectomy for clinical M0 RCC (cohort 1) or (2) first-line therapy following RCC metachronous metastatic recurrence (cohort 2) at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. The study population included M0 RCC patients with recurrent disease (RD) versus no evidence of disease (NED) in at least one follow-up visit. Plasma and urine free GAGomes—consisting of 40 chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA) features—were measured in a blinded central laboratory preoperatively and at each postoperative follow-up visit until recurrence or end of follow-up in cohort 1, or before treatment start in cohort 2. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We used Bayesian logistic regression to correlate GAGome features with RD versus NED and with various histopathological variables. We developed three recurrence scores (plasma, urine, and combined) proportional to the predicted probability of RD. We internally validated the area under the curve (AUC) using bootstrap resampling. We performed a decision curve analysis to select a cutoff and report the corresponding net benefit, sensitivity, and specificity of each score. We used univariable analyses to correlate each preoperative score with recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results and limitations: Of 127 enrolled patients in total, 62 M0 RCC patients were in the study population (median age: 63 year, 35% female, and 82% clear cell). The median follow-up time was 3 months, totaling 72 postoperative visits —17 RD and 55 NED cases. RD was compatible with alterations in 14 (52%) of the detectable GAGome features, mostly free CS. Eleven (79%) of these correlated with at least one histopathological variable. We developed a plasma, a urine, and a combined free CS RCC recurrence score to diagnose RD versus NED with AUCs 0.91, 0.93, and 0.94, respectively. At a cutoff equivalent to ≥30% predicted probability of RD, the sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 69% and 84% in plasma, 81% and 80% in urine, and 80% and 82% when combined, and the net benefit was equivalent to finding an extra ten, 13, and 12 cases of RD per hundred patients without any unnecessary imaging for plasma, urine, and combined, respectively. The combined score was prognostic of RFS in univariable analysis (hazard ratio = 1.90, p = 0.02). Limitations include a lack of external validation. Conclusions: Free CS scores detected postsurgical recurrence noninvasively in M0 RCC with substantial net benefit. External validity is required before wider clinical implementation. Patient summary: In this study, we examined a new noninvasive blood and urine test to detect whether renal cell carcinoma recurred after surgery.

(Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; and
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Glycosaminoglycans, Liquid biopsy, Renal cell carcinoma, Tumor biomarkers
in
European Urology Open Science
volume
42
pages
10 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:85133269884
  • pmid:35911082
ISSN
2666-1691
DOI
10.1016/j.euros.2022.06.003
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
dbb3df36-c21d-47f9-9685-389dc5ce47dd
date added to LUP
2022-09-27 16:55:22
date last changed
2024-06-13 19:38:35
@article{dbb3df36-c21d-47f9-9685-389dc5ce47dd,
  abstract     = {{<p>Background: No liquid biomarkers are approved in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), making early detection of recurrence in surgically treated nonmetastatic (M0) patients dependent on radiological imaging. Urine- and plasma free glycosaminoglycan profiles—or free GAGomes—are promising biomarkers reflective of RCC metabolism. Objective: To explore whether free GAGomes could detect M0 RCC recurrence noninvasively. Design, setting, and participants: Between June 2016 and February 2021, we enrolled a prospective consecutive series of patients elected for (1) partial or radical nephrectomy for clinical M0 RCC (cohort 1) or (2) first-line therapy following RCC metachronous metastatic recurrence (cohort 2) at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. The study population included M0 RCC patients with recurrent disease (RD) versus no evidence of disease (NED) in at least one follow-up visit. Plasma and urine free GAGomes—consisting of 40 chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA) features—were measured in a blinded central laboratory preoperatively and at each postoperative follow-up visit until recurrence or end of follow-up in cohort 1, or before treatment start in cohort 2. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We used Bayesian logistic regression to correlate GAGome features with RD versus NED and with various histopathological variables. We developed three recurrence scores (plasma, urine, and combined) proportional to the predicted probability of RD. We internally validated the area under the curve (AUC) using bootstrap resampling. We performed a decision curve analysis to select a cutoff and report the corresponding net benefit, sensitivity, and specificity of each score. We used univariable analyses to correlate each preoperative score with recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results and limitations: Of 127 enrolled patients in total, 62 M0 RCC patients were in the study population (median age: 63 year, 35% female, and 82% clear cell). The median follow-up time was 3 months, totaling 72 postoperative visits —17 RD and 55 NED cases. RD was compatible with alterations in 14 (52%) of the detectable GAGome features, mostly free CS. Eleven (79%) of these correlated with at least one histopathological variable. We developed a plasma, a urine, and a combined free CS RCC recurrence score to diagnose RD versus NED with AUCs 0.91, 0.93, and 0.94, respectively. At a cutoff equivalent to ≥30% predicted probability of RD, the sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 69% and 84% in plasma, 81% and 80% in urine, and 80% and 82% when combined, and the net benefit was equivalent to finding an extra ten, 13, and 12 cases of RD per hundred patients without any unnecessary imaging for plasma, urine, and combined, respectively. The combined score was prognostic of RFS in univariable analysis (hazard ratio = 1.90, p = 0.02). Limitations include a lack of external validation. Conclusions: Free CS scores detected postsurgical recurrence noninvasively in M0 RCC with substantial net benefit. External validity is required before wider clinical implementation. Patient summary: In this study, we examined a new noninvasive blood and urine test to detect whether renal cell carcinoma recurred after surgery.</p>}},
  author       = {{Gatto, Francesco and Dabestani, Saeed and Bratulic, Sinisa and Limeta, Angelo and Maccari, Francesca and Galeotti, Fabio and Volpi, Nicola and Stierner, Ulrika and Nielsen, Jens and Lundstam, Sven}},
  issn         = {{2666-1691}},
  keywords     = {{Glycosaminoglycans; Liquid biopsy; Renal cell carcinoma; Tumor biomarkers}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{30--39}},
  publisher    = {{Elsevier}},
  series       = {{European Urology Open Science}},
  title        = {{Plasma and Urine Free Glycosaminoglycans as Monitoring Biomarkers in Nonmetastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma—A Prospective Cohort Study}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2022.06.003}},
  doi          = {{10.1016/j.euros.2022.06.003}},
  volume       = {{42}},
  year         = {{2022}},
}