Advanced

Antimicrobials in small-scale urban pig farming in a lower middle-income country - arbitrary use and high resistance levels

Ström, G. ; Boqvist, S. ; Albihn, A. ; Fernström, L. L. ; Andersson Djurfeldt, A. LU ; Sokerya, S. ; Sothyra, T. and Magnusson, U. (2018) In Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 7(1).
Abstract
© 2018 The Author(s). Background: Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production. Commensal Escherichia coli was isolated from three healthy pigs from each farm (n = 261) and susceptibility testing was performed against 14 antimicrobials, using broth... (More)
© 2018 The Author(s). Background: Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production. Commensal Escherichia coli was isolated from three healthy pigs from each farm (n = 261) and susceptibility testing was performed against 14 antimicrobials, using broth microdilution. Univariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate potential associations between farm characteristics, management factors and resistance to different types of antimicrobials. Results: We found a widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials, often based on the farmer's own judgment. Around 66% of the farmers reported frequently self-adjusting treatment duration and dosage, and 45% had not heard about the term 'antimicrobial resistance'. The antimicrobials most commonly mentioned or kept by the farmers were amoxicillin, tylosin, gentamicin and colistin. Around 37% used a feed concentrate that contained antimicrobials, while antimicrobials for humans were used as a last-line treatment by 10% of the farmers. Commensal E. coli exhibited high prevalence of resistance to several antimicrobials considered to be of critical importance for human medicine, including ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and colistin, and multidrug-resistance was found in 79% of the samples. Higher prevalence of resistance was observed on farms that administered prophylactic antimicrobials and on farms that treated the entire group or herd in the event of disease. Conclusion: The widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials in pig farming in Cambodia is highly worrisome. Overall, farmers had a low awareness of the risks and consequences related to antimicrobial use and AMR. The results presented in this study confirm the hypothesis that non-rational use of antimicrobials results in higher prevalence of AMR and highlight the need for professional animal health systems that involve medically rational use of antimicrobials in emerging economies such as Cambodia. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
; ; ; ; ; ; and
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial use, Cambodia, Pig production
in
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
volume
7
issue
1
article number
35
publisher
BioMed Central (BMC)
external identifiers
  • pmid:29541447
  • scopus:85043369687
ISSN
2047-2994
DOI
10.1186/s13756-018-0328-y
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
dee7d1d1-b7ad-40c1-a838-62d073795917
date added to LUP
2018-03-28 08:51:24
date last changed
2020-10-20 02:08:53
@article{dee7d1d1-b7ad-40c1-a838-62d073795917,
  abstract     = {© 2018 The Author(s). Background: Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production. Commensal Escherichia coli was isolated from three healthy pigs from each farm (n = 261) and susceptibility testing was performed against 14 antimicrobials, using broth microdilution. Univariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate potential associations between farm characteristics, management factors and resistance to different types of antimicrobials. Results: We found a widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials, often based on the farmer's own judgment. Around 66% of the farmers reported frequently self-adjusting treatment duration and dosage, and 45% had not heard about the term 'antimicrobial resistance'. The antimicrobials most commonly mentioned or kept by the farmers were amoxicillin, tylosin, gentamicin and colistin. Around 37% used a feed concentrate that contained antimicrobials, while antimicrobials for humans were used as a last-line treatment by 10% of the farmers. Commensal E. coli exhibited high prevalence of resistance to several antimicrobials considered to be of critical importance for human medicine, including ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and colistin, and multidrug-resistance was found in 79% of the samples. Higher prevalence of resistance was observed on farms that administered prophylactic antimicrobials and on farms that treated the entire group or herd in the event of disease. Conclusion: The widespread and arbitrary use of antimicrobials in pig farming in Cambodia is highly worrisome. Overall, farmers had a low awareness of the risks and consequences related to antimicrobial use and AMR. The results presented in this study confirm the hypothesis that non-rational use of antimicrobials results in higher prevalence of AMR and highlight the need for professional animal health systems that involve medically rational use of antimicrobials in emerging economies such as Cambodia.},
  author       = {Ström, G. and Boqvist, S. and Albihn, A. and Fernström, L. L. and Andersson Djurfeldt, A. and Sokerya, S. and Sothyra, T. and Magnusson, U.},
  issn         = {2047-2994},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {03},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {BioMed Central (BMC)},
  series       = {Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control},
  title        = {Antimicrobials in small-scale urban pig farming in a lower middle-income country - arbitrary use and high resistance levels},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-018-0328-y},
  doi          = {10.1186/s13756-018-0328-y},
  volume       = {7},
  year         = {2018},
}