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A simplified model to estimate the concentration of inorganic ions and heavy metals in rivers

Nhantumbo, Clemencio LU ; Larsson, Rolf LU ; Larson, Magnus LU ; Juízo, Dinis LU and Persson, Kenneth M. LU (2016) In Water (Switzerland) 8(10).
Abstract

This paper presents a model that uses only pH, alkalinity, and temperature to estimate the concentrations of major ions in rivers (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, and NO3 -) together with the equilibrium concentrations of minor ions and heavy metals (Fe3+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Pb2+, and Zn2+). Mining operations have been increasing, which has led to changes in the pollution loads to receiving water systems, meanwhile most developing countries cannot afford water quality monitoring. A possible solution is to implement less... (More)

This paper presents a model that uses only pH, alkalinity, and temperature to estimate the concentrations of major ions in rivers (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, and NO3 -) together with the equilibrium concentrations of minor ions and heavy metals (Fe3+, Mn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Al3+, Pb2+, and Zn2+). Mining operations have been increasing, which has led to changes in the pollution loads to receiving water systems, meanwhile most developing countries cannot afford water quality monitoring. A possible solution is to implement less resource-demanding monitoring programs, supported by mathematical models that minimize the required sampling and analysis, while still being able to detect water quality changes, thereby allowing implementation of measures to protect the water resources. The present model was developed using existing theories for: (i) carbonate equilibrium; (ii) total alkalinity; (iii) statistics of major ions; (iv) solubility of minerals; and (v) conductivity of salts in water. The model includes two options to estimate the concentrations of major ions: (1) a generalized method, which employs standard values from a world-wide data base; and (2) a customized method, which requires specific baseline data for the river of interest. The model was tested using data from four monitoring stations in Swedish rivers with satisfactory results.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Estimate, Major ions, Model, River monitoring, Water chemistry
in
Water (Switzerland)
volume
8
issue
10
publisher
MDPI AG
external identifiers
  • scopus:84994682200
  • wos:000389659200038
ISSN
2073-4441
DOI
10.3390/w8100453
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e0304691-e742-4877-89d0-70473081a07e
date added to LUP
2016-12-07 10:34:51
date last changed
2017-09-18 11:30:25
@article{e0304691-e742-4877-89d0-70473081a07e,
  abstract     = {<p>This paper presents a model that uses only pH, alkalinity, and temperature to estimate the concentrations of major ions in rivers (Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, HCO<sub>3</sub> <sup>-</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub> <sup>2-</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup>, and NO<sub>3</sub> <sup>-</sup>) together with the equilibrium concentrations of minor ions and heavy metals (Fe<sup>3+</sup>, Mn<sup>2+</sup>, Cd<sup>2+</sup>, Cu<sup>2+</sup>, Al<sup>3+</sup>, Pb<sup>2+</sup>, and Zn<sup>2+</sup>). Mining operations have been increasing, which has led to changes in the pollution loads to receiving water systems, meanwhile most developing countries cannot afford water quality monitoring. A possible solution is to implement less resource-demanding monitoring programs, supported by mathematical models that minimize the required sampling and analysis, while still being able to detect water quality changes, thereby allowing implementation of measures to protect the water resources. The present model was developed using existing theories for: (i) carbonate equilibrium; (ii) total alkalinity; (iii) statistics of major ions; (iv) solubility of minerals; and (v) conductivity of salts in water. The model includes two options to estimate the concentrations of major ions: (1) a generalized method, which employs standard values from a world-wide data base; and (2) a customized method, which requires specific baseline data for the river of interest. The model was tested using data from four monitoring stations in Swedish rivers with satisfactory results.</p>},
  articleno    = {453},
  author       = {Nhantumbo, Clemencio and Larsson, Rolf and Larson, Magnus and Juízo, Dinis and Persson, Kenneth M.},
  issn         = {2073-4441},
  keyword      = {Estimate,Major ions,Model,River monitoring,Water chemistry},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {10},
  number       = {10},
  publisher    = {MDPI AG},
  series       = {Water (Switzerland)},
  title        = {A simplified model to estimate the concentration of inorganic ions and heavy metals in rivers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w8100453},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2016},
}