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Reliability of a new risk assessment method for visual ergonomics

Zetterberg, Camilla LU ; Heiden, Marina; Lindberg, Per; Nylén, Per and Hemphälä, Hillevi LU (2019) In International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 72. p.71-79
Abstract

Introduction: The Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM) is a newly developed and validated method to assess visual ergonomics at workplaces. VERAM consists of a questionnaire and an objective evaluation. Objective: To evaluate reliability of VERAM by assessing test-retest reliability of the questionnaire, and intra- and inter-rater reliability of the objective evaluation. Methods: Forty-eight trained evaluators used VERAM to evaluate visual ergonomics at 174 workstations. The time interval for test-retest and intra-rater evaluations was 2–3 weeks, and the time interval for inter-rater evaluations was 0–2 days. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC), the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the... (More)

Introduction: The Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM) is a newly developed and validated method to assess visual ergonomics at workplaces. VERAM consists of a questionnaire and an objective evaluation. Objective: To evaluate reliability of VERAM by assessing test-retest reliability of the questionnaire, and intra- and inter-rater reliability of the objective evaluation. Methods: Forty-eight trained evaluators used VERAM to evaluate visual ergonomics at 174 workstations. The time interval for test-retest and intra-rater evaluations was 2–3 weeks, and the time interval for inter-rater evaluations was 0–2 days. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC), the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the smallest detectable change (SDC). Intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed with weighted kappa coefficients and absolute agreement. Systematic changes were analysed with repeated measures analyses of variance and Wilcoxon sign rank test. Results: The ICC of the questionnaire indices ranged from 0.69 to 0.87, while SEM ranged from 7.21 to 10.19 on a scale from 1 to 100, and SDC from 14.42 to 20.37. Intra-rater reliability of objective evaluations ranged from 0.57 to 0.85 (kappa coefficients) and the agreement from 69 to 91%. Inter-rater reliability of objective evaluations ranged from 0.37 to 0.72 (kappa coefficients) and the agreement from 52 to 87%. Conclusion: VERAM is a reliable instrument for assessing risks in visual work environments. However, the reliability might increase further by improving the quality of training for evaluators. Complementary evaluations of VERAM's sensitivity to changes in the visual environment are needed. Relevance to industry: It is advantageous to set up a work environment for maximal visual comfort to avoid negative effects on work postures and movements and thus prevent visual- and musculoskeletal symptoms. This method, VERAM, satisfies the need of a valid and reliable tool for determining risks associated with the visual work environment.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Eyestrain, Flicker, Glare, Illuminance, Lighting, Musculoskeletal
in
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics
volume
72
pages
9 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:85064888978
ISSN
0169-8141
DOI
10.1016/j.ergon.2019.04.002
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e50f5da6-e666-4c11-a47c-23e470d33219
date added to LUP
2019-05-13 12:40:36
date last changed
2019-08-14 04:36:37
@article{e50f5da6-e666-4c11-a47c-23e470d33219,
  abstract     = {<p>Introduction: The Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM) is a newly developed and validated method to assess visual ergonomics at workplaces. VERAM consists of a questionnaire and an objective evaluation. Objective: To evaluate reliability of VERAM by assessing test-retest reliability of the questionnaire, and intra- and inter-rater reliability of the objective evaluation. Methods: Forty-eight trained evaluators used VERAM to evaluate visual ergonomics at 174 workstations. The time interval for test-retest and intra-rater evaluations was 2–3 weeks, and the time interval for inter-rater evaluations was 0–2 days. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC), the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the smallest detectable change (SDC). Intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed with weighted kappa coefficients and absolute agreement. Systematic changes were analysed with repeated measures analyses of variance and Wilcoxon sign rank test. Results: The ICC of the questionnaire indices ranged from 0.69 to 0.87, while SEM ranged from 7.21 to 10.19 on a scale from 1 to 100, and SDC from 14.42 to 20.37. Intra-rater reliability of objective evaluations ranged from 0.57 to 0.85 (kappa coefficients) and the agreement from 69 to 91%. Inter-rater reliability of objective evaluations ranged from 0.37 to 0.72 (kappa coefficients) and the agreement from 52 to 87%. Conclusion: VERAM is a reliable instrument for assessing risks in visual work environments. However, the reliability might increase further by improving the quality of training for evaluators. Complementary evaluations of VERAM's sensitivity to changes in the visual environment are needed. Relevance to industry: It is advantageous to set up a work environment for maximal visual comfort to avoid negative effects on work postures and movements and thus prevent visual- and musculoskeletal symptoms. This method, VERAM, satisfies the need of a valid and reliable tool for determining risks associated with the visual work environment.</p>},
  author       = {Zetterberg, Camilla and Heiden, Marina and Lindberg, Per and Nylén, Per and Hemphälä, Hillevi},
  issn         = {0169-8141},
  keyword      = {Eyestrain,Flicker,Glare,Illuminance,Lighting,Musculoskeletal},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {71--79},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics},
  title        = {Reliability of a new risk assessment method for visual ergonomics},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2019.04.002},
  volume       = {72},
  year         = {2019},
}