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Enabling internal electronic circuitry within additively manufactured metal structures – The effect and importance of inter-laminar topography

Li, Ji; Monaghan, Tom; Kay, Robert; Friel, Ross James LU and Harris, Russell (2018) In Rapid Prototyping Journal 24(1). p.204-213
Abstract

Purpose – This paper aims to explore the potential of ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to incorporate the direct printing of electrical materials and arrangements (conductors and insulators) at the interlaminar interface of parts during manufacture to allow the integration of functional and optimal electrical circuitries inside dense metallic objects without detrimental effect on the overall mechanical integrity. This holds promise to release transformative device functionality and applications of smart metallic devices and products. Design/methodology/approach – To ensure the proper electrical insulation between the printed conductors and metal matrices, an insulation layer with sufficient thickness is required to accommodate... (More)

Purpose – This paper aims to explore the potential of ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to incorporate the direct printing of electrical materials and arrangements (conductors and insulators) at the interlaminar interface of parts during manufacture to allow the integration of functional and optimal electrical circuitries inside dense metallic objects without detrimental effect on the overall mechanical integrity. This holds promise to release transformative device functionality and applications of smart metallic devices and products. Design/methodology/approach – To ensure the proper electrical insulation between the printed conductors and metal matrices, an insulation layer with sufficient thickness is required to accommodate the rough interlaminar surface which is inherent to the UAM process. This in turn increases the total thickness of printed circuitries and thereby adversely affects the integrity of the UAM part. A specific solution is proposed to optimise the rough interlaminar surface through deforming the UAM substrates via sonotrode rolling or UAM processing. Findings – The surface roughness (Sa) could be reduced from 4.5 to 4.1 mm by sonotrode rolling and from 4.5 to 0.8 mm by ultrasonic deformation. Peel testing demonstrated that sonotrode-rolled substrates could maintain their mechanical strength, while the performance of UAM-deformed substrates degraded under same welding conditions (approximately 12 per cent reduction compared with undeformed substrates). This was attributed to the work hardening of deformation process which was identified via dual-beam focussed ion beam–scanning electron microscope investigation. Originality/value – The sonotrode rolling was identified as a viable methodology in allowing printed electrical circuitries in UAM. It enabled a decrease in the thickness of printed electrical circuitries by ca. 25 per cent.

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
3D printing, Aluminium alloy, Grain refinement, Mechanical strength, Topography, Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM)
in
Rapid Prototyping Journal
volume
24
issue
1
pages
10 pages
publisher
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
external identifiers
  • scopus:85041829798
ISSN
1355-2546
DOI
10.1108/RPJ-08-2016-0135
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
ea4a38fa-d8d2-4379-aa5e-fd0bbff242cf
date added to LUP
2018-02-22 07:41:49
date last changed
2018-05-29 10:08:32
@article{ea4a38fa-d8d2-4379-aa5e-fd0bbff242cf,
  abstract     = {<p>Purpose – This paper aims to explore the potential of ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to incorporate the direct printing of electrical materials and arrangements (conductors and insulators) at the interlaminar interface of parts during manufacture to allow the integration of functional and optimal electrical circuitries inside dense metallic objects without detrimental effect on the overall mechanical integrity. This holds promise to release transformative device functionality and applications of smart metallic devices and products. Design/methodology/approach – To ensure the proper electrical insulation between the printed conductors and metal matrices, an insulation layer with sufficient thickness is required to accommodate the rough interlaminar surface which is inherent to the UAM process. This in turn increases the total thickness of printed circuitries and thereby adversely affects the integrity of the UAM part. A specific solution is proposed to optimise the rough interlaminar surface through deforming the UAM substrates via sonotrode rolling or UAM processing. Findings – The surface roughness (Sa) could be reduced from 4.5 to 4.1 mm by sonotrode rolling and from 4.5 to 0.8 mm by ultrasonic deformation. Peel testing demonstrated that sonotrode-rolled substrates could maintain their mechanical strength, while the performance of UAM-deformed substrates degraded under same welding conditions (approximately 12 per cent reduction compared with undeformed substrates). This was attributed to the work hardening of deformation process which was identified via dual-beam focussed ion beam–scanning electron microscope investigation. Originality/value – The sonotrode rolling was identified as a viable methodology in allowing printed electrical circuitries in UAM. It enabled a decrease in the thickness of printed electrical circuitries by ca. 25 per cent.</p>},
  author       = {Li, Ji and Monaghan, Tom and Kay, Robert and Friel, Ross James and Harris, Russell},
  issn         = {1355-2546},
  keyword      = {3D printing,Aluminium alloy,Grain refinement,Mechanical strength,Topography,Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM)},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {204--213},
  publisher    = {Emerald Group Publishing Limited},
  series       = {Rapid Prototyping Journal},
  title        = {Enabling internal electronic circuitry within additively manufactured metal structures – The effect and importance of inter-laminar topography},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-08-2016-0135},
  volume       = {24},
  year         = {2018},
}