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Standardisation of eddy-covariance flux measurements of methane and nitrous oxide

Nemitz, Eiko; Mammarella, Ivan; Ibrom, Andreas; Aurela, Mika; Burba, George G.; Dengel, Sigrid; Gielen, Bert; Grelle, Achim; Heinesch, Bernard and Herbst, Mathias, et al. (2018) In International Agrophysics 32(4). p.517-549
Abstract

Commercially available fast-response analysers for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have recently become more sensitive, more robust and easier to operate. This has made their application for long-Term flux measurements with the eddy-covariance method more feasible. Unlike for carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O), there have so far been no guidelines on how to optimise and standardise the measurements. This paper reviews the state-of-The-Art of the various steps of the measurements and discusses aspects such as instrument selection, setup and maintenance, data processing as well as the additional measurements needed to aid interpretation and gap-filling. It presents the... (More)

Commercially available fast-response analysers for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have recently become more sensitive, more robust and easier to operate. This has made their application for long-Term flux measurements with the eddy-covariance method more feasible. Unlike for carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O), there have so far been no guidelines on how to optimise and standardise the measurements. This paper reviews the state-of-The-Art of the various steps of the measurements and discusses aspects such as instrument selection, setup and maintenance, data processing as well as the additional measurements needed to aid interpretation and gap-filling. It presents the methodological protocol for eddy covariance measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes as agreed for the ecosystem station network of the pan-European Research Infrastructure Integrated Carbon Observation System and provides a first international standard that is suggested to be adopted more widely. Fluxes can be episodic and the processes controlling the fluxes are complex, preventing simple mechanistic gap-filling strategies. Fluxes are often near or below the detection limit, requiring additional care during data processing. The protocol sets out the best practice for these conditions to avoid biasing the results and long-Term budgets. It summarises the current approach to gap-filling.

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@article{ee82d360-8c85-41fd-a679-220fc299278e,
  abstract     = {<p>Commercially available fast-response analysers for methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) and nitrous oxide (N<sub>2</sub>O) have recently become more sensitive, more robust and easier to operate. This has made their application for long-Term flux measurements with the eddy-covariance method more feasible. Unlike for carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) and water vapour (H<sub>2</sub>O), there have so far been no guidelines on how to optimise and standardise the measurements. This paper reviews the state-of-The-Art of the various steps of the measurements and discusses aspects such as instrument selection, setup and maintenance, data processing as well as the additional measurements needed to aid interpretation and gap-filling. It presents the methodological protocol for eddy covariance measurements of CH<sub>4</sub> and N<sub>2</sub>O fluxes as agreed for the ecosystem station network of the pan-European Research Infrastructure Integrated Carbon Observation System and provides a first international standard that is suggested to be adopted more widely. Fluxes can be episodic and the processes controlling the fluxes are complex, preventing simple mechanistic gap-filling strategies. Fluxes are often near or below the detection limit, requiring additional care during data processing. The protocol sets out the best practice for these conditions to avoid biasing the results and long-Term budgets. It summarises the current approach to gap-filling.</p>},
  author       = {Nemitz, Eiko and Mammarella, Ivan and Ibrom, Andreas and Aurela, Mika and Burba, George G. and Dengel, Sigrid and Gielen, Bert and Grelle, Achim and Heinesch, Bernard and Herbst, Mathias and Hörtnagl, Lukas and Klemedtsson, Leif and Lindroth, Anders and Lohila, Annalea and McDermitt, Dayle K. and Meier, Philip and Merbold, Lutz and Nelson, David and Nicolini, Giacomo and Nilsson, Mats B. and Peltola, Olli and Rinne, Janne and Zahniser, Mark},
  issn         = {0236-8722},
  keyword      = {greenhouse gas exchange,ICOS,micrometeorology,protocol,standardisation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {517--549},
  publisher    = {De Gruyter},
  series       = {International Agrophysics},
  title        = {Standardisation of eddy-covariance flux measurements of methane and nitrous oxide},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/intag-2017-0042},
  volume       = {32},
  year         = {2018},
}