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Life histories of microalgal species causing harmful blooms : Haploids, diploids and the relevance of benthic stages

Figueroa, Rosa Isabel LU ; Estrada, Marta and Garcés, Esther (2018) In Harmful Algae 73. p.44-57
Abstract

In coastal and offshore waters, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) currently threaten the well-being of coastal countries. These events, which can be localized or involve wide-ranging areas, pose risks to human health, marine ecosystems, and economic resources, such as tourism, fisheries, and aquaculture. Dynamics of HABs vary from one site to another, depending on the hydrographic and ecological conditions. The challenge in investigating HABs is that they are caused by organisms from multiple algal classes, each with its own unique features, including different life histories. The complete algal life cycle has been determined in <1% of the described species, although elucidation of the life cycles of bloom-forming species is essential in... (More)

In coastal and offshore waters, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) currently threaten the well-being of coastal countries. These events, which can be localized or involve wide-ranging areas, pose risks to human health, marine ecosystems, and economic resources, such as tourism, fisheries, and aquaculture. Dynamics of HABs vary from one site to another, depending on the hydrographic and ecological conditions. The challenge in investigating HABs is that they are caused by organisms from multiple algal classes, each with its own unique features, including different life histories. The complete algal life cycle has been determined in <1% of the described species, although elucidation of the life cycles of bloom-forming species is essential in developing preventative measures. The knowledge obtained thus far has confirmed the complexity of the algal life cycle, which is composed of discrete life stages whose morphology, ecological niche (plankton/benthos), function, and lifespan vary. The factors that trigger transitions between the different stages in nature are mostly unknown, but it is clear that an understanding of this process provides the key to effectively forecasting bloom recurrence, maintenance, and decline. Planktonic stages constitute an ephemeral phase of the life cycle of most species whereas resistant, benthic stages enable a species to withstand adverse conditions for prolonged periods, thus providing dormant reservoirs for eventual blooms and facilitating organismal dispersal. Here we review current knowledge of the life cycle strategies of major groups of HAB producers in marine and brackish waters. Rather than providing a comprehensive discussion, the objective was to highlight several of the research milestones that have changed our understanding of the plasticity and frequency of the different life cycle stages as well as the transitions between them. We also discuss the relevance of benthic and planktonic forms and their implications for HAB dynamics.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Environmental and physiological factors, Harmful algal blooms, Harmful algal species, Life history, Management, Models, Resting stages
in
Harmful Algae
volume
73
pages
14 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:85041620582
ISSN
1568-9883
DOI
10.1016/j.hal.2018.01.006
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f015dec3-3d75-4520-b5b8-86203f44be78
date added to LUP
2018-02-20 12:37:11
date last changed
2018-11-21 21:38:08
@article{f015dec3-3d75-4520-b5b8-86203f44be78,
  abstract     = {<p>In coastal and offshore waters, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) currently threaten the well-being of coastal countries. These events, which can be localized or involve wide-ranging areas, pose risks to human health, marine ecosystems, and economic resources, such as tourism, fisheries, and aquaculture. Dynamics of HABs vary from one site to another, depending on the hydrographic and ecological conditions. The challenge in investigating HABs is that they are caused by organisms from multiple algal classes, each with its own unique features, including different life histories. The complete algal life cycle has been determined in &lt;1% of the described species, although elucidation of the life cycles of bloom-forming species is essential in developing preventative measures. The knowledge obtained thus far has confirmed the complexity of the algal life cycle, which is composed of discrete life stages whose morphology, ecological niche (plankton/benthos), function, and lifespan vary. The factors that trigger transitions between the different stages in nature are mostly unknown, but it is clear that an understanding of this process provides the key to effectively forecasting bloom recurrence, maintenance, and decline. Planktonic stages constitute an ephemeral phase of the life cycle of most species whereas resistant, benthic stages enable a species to withstand adverse conditions for prolonged periods, thus providing dormant reservoirs for eventual blooms and facilitating organismal dispersal. Here we review current knowledge of the life cycle strategies of major groups of HAB producers in marine and brackish waters. Rather than providing a comprehensive discussion, the objective was to highlight several of the research milestones that have changed our understanding of the plasticity and frequency of the different life cycle stages as well as the transitions between them. We also discuss the relevance of benthic and planktonic forms and their implications for HAB dynamics.</p>},
  author       = {Figueroa, Rosa Isabel and Estrada, Marta and Garcés, Esther},
  issn         = {1568-9883},
  keyword      = {Environmental and physiological factors,Harmful algal blooms,Harmful algal species,Life history,Management,Models,Resting stages},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {03},
  pages        = {44--57},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Harmful Algae},
  title        = {Life histories of microalgal species causing harmful blooms : Haploids, diploids and the relevance of benthic stages},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2018.01.006},
  volume       = {73},
  year         = {2018},
}