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Omics for bioprospecting and drug discovery from bacteria and microalgae

Maghembe, Reuben ; Damian, Donath ; Makaranga, Abdalah ; Nyandoro, Stephen Samwel ; Lyantagaye, Sylvester Leonard ; Kusari, Souvik and Hatti-Kaul, Rajni LU (2020) In Antibiotics 9(5).
Abstract

“Omics” represent a combinatorial approach to high-throughput analysis of biological entities for various purposes. It broadly encompasses genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, lipidomics, and metabolomics. Bacteria and microalgae exhibit a wide range of genetic, biochemical and concomitantly, physiological variations owing to their exposure to biotic and abiotic dynamics in their ecosystem conditions. Consequently, optimal conditions for adequate growth and production of useful bacterial or microalgal metabolites are critically unpredictable. Traditional methods employ microbe isolation and ‘blind’-culture optimization with numerous chemical analyses making the bioprospecting process laborious, strenuous, and costly. Advances in the... (More)

“Omics” represent a combinatorial approach to high-throughput analysis of biological entities for various purposes. It broadly encompasses genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, lipidomics, and metabolomics. Bacteria and microalgae exhibit a wide range of genetic, biochemical and concomitantly, physiological variations owing to their exposure to biotic and abiotic dynamics in their ecosystem conditions. Consequently, optimal conditions for adequate growth and production of useful bacterial or microalgal metabolites are critically unpredictable. Traditional methods employ microbe isolation and ‘blind’-culture optimization with numerous chemical analyses making the bioprospecting process laborious, strenuous, and costly. Advances in the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have offered a platform for the pan-genomic analysis of microbes from community and strain downstream to the gene level. Changing conditions in nature or laboratory accompany epigenetic modulation, variation in gene expression, and subsequent biochemical profiles defining an organism’s inherent metabolic repertoire. Proteome and metabolome analysis could further our understanding of the molecular and biochemical attributes of the microbes under research. This review provides an overview of recent studies that have employed omics as a robust, broad-spectrum approach for screening bacteria and microalgae to exploit their potential as sources of drug leads by focusing on their genomes, secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway genes, transcriptomes, and metabolomes. We also highlight how recent studies have combined molecular biology with analytical chemistry methods, which further underscore the need for advances in bioinformatics and chemoinformatics as vital instruments in the discovery of novel bacterial and microalgal strains as well as new drug leads.

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author
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organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Bacteria, Biosynthetic gene clusters, Drug discovery, Microalgae, Omics
in
Antibiotics
volume
9
issue
5
article number
229
publisher
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
external identifiers
  • pmid:32375367
  • scopus:85085057848
ISSN
2079-6382
DOI
10.3390/antibiotics9050229
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f1b6f1cb-c203-467a-8df9-50a3f483c01b
date added to LUP
2020-06-20 07:45:02
date last changed
2020-11-24 02:41:04
@article{f1b6f1cb-c203-467a-8df9-50a3f483c01b,
  abstract     = {<p>“Omics” represent a combinatorial approach to high-throughput analysis of biological entities for various purposes. It broadly encompasses genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, lipidomics, and metabolomics. Bacteria and microalgae exhibit a wide range of genetic, biochemical and concomitantly, physiological variations owing to their exposure to biotic and abiotic dynamics in their ecosystem conditions. Consequently, optimal conditions for adequate growth and production of useful bacterial or microalgal metabolites are critically unpredictable. Traditional methods employ microbe isolation and ‘blind’-culture optimization with numerous chemical analyses making the bioprospecting process laborious, strenuous, and costly. Advances in the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have offered a platform for the pan-genomic analysis of microbes from community and strain downstream to the gene level. Changing conditions in nature or laboratory accompany epigenetic modulation, variation in gene expression, and subsequent biochemical profiles defining an organism’s inherent metabolic repertoire. Proteome and metabolome analysis could further our understanding of the molecular and biochemical attributes of the microbes under research. This review provides an overview of recent studies that have employed omics as a robust, broad-spectrum approach for screening bacteria and microalgae to exploit their potential as sources of drug leads by focusing on their genomes, secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway genes, transcriptomes, and metabolomes. We also highlight how recent studies have combined molecular biology with analytical chemistry methods, which further underscore the need for advances in bioinformatics and chemoinformatics as vital instruments in the discovery of novel bacterial and microalgal strains as well as new drug leads.</p>},
  author       = {Maghembe, Reuben and Damian, Donath and Makaranga, Abdalah and Nyandoro, Stephen Samwel and Lyantagaye, Sylvester Leonard and Kusari, Souvik and Hatti-Kaul, Rajni},
  issn         = {2079-6382},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {05},
  number       = {5},
  publisher    = {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)},
  series       = {Antibiotics},
  title        = {Omics for bioprospecting and drug discovery from bacteria and microalgae},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9050229},
  doi          = {10.3390/antibiotics9050229},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2020},
}