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Protamine neutralization of intravenous and subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (tinzaparin, Logiparin(TM)). An experimental investigation in healthy volunteers

Holst, J. LU ; Lindblad, B. LU ; Bergqvist, D.; Garre, K.; Nielsen, H.; Hedner, U. LU and Ostergaard, P. B. (1994) In Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 5(5). p.795-803
Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether tinzaparin sodium (a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)) was fully and permanently neutralized in vivo in man by protamine sulphate (PS) after intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Fifty healthy adults equally divided in five age- and sex-matched groups were included. The groups received 50 IU unfractionated heparin (UH)/kg body weight (b.w.) i.v., 50 anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) IU tinzaparin/kg b.w. i.v., 75 anti-Xa IU tinzaparin/kg b.w. s.c., 175 anti-Xa IU tinzaparin/kg b.w. s.c., or 1 ml of saline s.c. PS was given as a 10 min infusion in a dose of 1 mg/100 IU of heparin in the four first groups while 0.5 mg PS/kg b.w. was given in the placebo group. In the i.v.... (More)

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether tinzaparin sodium (a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)) was fully and permanently neutralized in vivo in man by protamine sulphate (PS) after intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Fifty healthy adults equally divided in five age- and sex-matched groups were included. The groups received 50 IU unfractionated heparin (UH)/kg body weight (b.w.) i.v., 50 anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) IU tinzaparin/kg b.w. i.v., 75 anti-Xa IU tinzaparin/kg b.w. s.c., 175 anti-Xa IU tinzaparin/kg b.w. s.c., or 1 ml of saline s.c. PS was given as a 10 min infusion in a dose of 1 mg/100 IU of heparin in the four first groups while 0.5 mg PS/kg b.w. was given in the placebo group. In the i.v. groups PS was administered 45 min after the heparin injection, and in the s.c. groups 180 min post-heparin injection. In the UH group PS fully and permanently neutralized all three activities. In the i.v. tinzaparin group PS reversed 80% of the anti-Xa activity, while the anti-IIa and aPTT activities were fully reversed. A slight, but statistically significant, increase in anti-Xa and anti-Ila activities were seen following i.v. tinzaparin. In the s.c. groups 60-65% of the observed peak anti-Xa activity was neutralized, anti-IIa was almost completely reversed, and aPTT returned nearly to baseline values. A gradual return of the anti-Xa activity (65-75%), anti-IIa activity (55%) and aPTT activity (35-45%) was seen in the s.c. groups 3 h after reversal compared with the observed peak values. A continuous absorption of tinzaparin from the s.c. depot is presumably the cause of the returned activity. PS caused an 8-27% transient drop in the platelet count in all groups. This study confirms that the anti-Xa activity following i.v. and s.c. administration of tinzaparin (a LMWH) is only partially neutralizable by protamine. This is not due to insufficient dosages of the antidote, as an excess of protamine could be demonstrated ex vivo immediately after the protamine infusion. The present results suggest that protamine neutralization of tinzaparin given s.c. should be obtained with intermittent injections or continuous infusion.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Healthy volunteers, LMWH, LMWH pharmacodynamics, Protamine neutralization
in
Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis
volume
5
issue
5
pages
795 - 803
publisher
Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
external identifiers
  • scopus:0028052203
ISSN
0957-5235
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f2af1f38-2d8d-4449-9d25-25821e85cd10
date added to LUP
2018-04-06 13:41:29
date last changed
2018-04-15 04:51:35
@article{f2af1f38-2d8d-4449-9d25-25821e85cd10,
  abstract     = {<p>The aim of the present study was to investigate whether tinzaparin sodium (a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)) was fully and permanently neutralized in vivo in man by protamine sulphate (PS) after intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Fifty healthy adults equally divided in five age- and sex-matched groups were included. The groups received 50 IU unfractionated heparin (UH)/kg body weight (b.w.) i.v., 50 anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) IU tinzaparin/kg b.w. i.v., 75 anti-Xa IU tinzaparin/kg b.w. s.c., 175 anti-Xa IU tinzaparin/kg b.w. s.c., or 1 ml of saline s.c. PS was given as a 10 min infusion in a dose of 1 mg/100 IU of heparin in the four first groups while 0.5 mg PS/kg b.w. was given in the placebo group. In the i.v. groups PS was administered 45 min after the heparin injection, and in the s.c. groups 180 min post-heparin injection. In the UH group PS fully and permanently neutralized all three activities. In the i.v. tinzaparin group PS reversed 80% of the anti-Xa activity, while the anti-IIa and aPTT activities were fully reversed. A slight, but statistically significant, increase in anti-Xa and anti-Ila activities were seen following i.v. tinzaparin. In the s.c. groups 60-65% of the observed peak anti-Xa activity was neutralized, anti-IIa was almost completely reversed, and aPTT returned nearly to baseline values. A gradual return of the anti-Xa activity (65-75%), anti-IIa activity (55%) and aPTT activity (35-45%) was seen in the s.c. groups 3 h after reversal compared with the observed peak values. A continuous absorption of tinzaparin from the s.c. depot is presumably the cause of the returned activity. PS caused an 8-27% transient drop in the platelet count in all groups. This study confirms that the anti-Xa activity following i.v. and s.c. administration of tinzaparin (a LMWH) is only partially neutralizable by protamine. This is not due to insufficient dosages of the antidote, as an excess of protamine could be demonstrated ex vivo immediately after the protamine infusion. The present results suggest that protamine neutralization of tinzaparin given s.c. should be obtained with intermittent injections or continuous infusion.</p>},
  author       = {Holst, J. and Lindblad, B. and Bergqvist, D. and Garre, K. and Nielsen, H. and Hedner, U. and Ostergaard, P. B.},
  issn         = {0957-5235},
  keyword      = {Healthy volunteers,LMWH,LMWH pharmacodynamics,Protamine neutralization},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {795--803},
  publisher    = {Lippincott Williams and Wilkins},
  series       = {Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis},
  title        = {Protamine neutralization of intravenous and subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin (tinzaparin, Logiparin(TM)). An experimental investigation in healthy volunteers},
  volume       = {5},
  year         = {1994},
}