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Buggning och preventiva tvångsmedel - En analys av lagarnas förenlighet med Europakonventionen

Wikström, Malin LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I januari 2008 trädde två nya lagar ikraft i Sverige. Lagen (2007:978) om hemlig rumsavlyssning gav de brottsbekämpande myndigheterna rätten att använda en ny metod, rumsavlyssning för att utreda redan begångna brott och lagen (2007:979) om åtgärder för att förhindra vissa särskilt allvarliga brott introducerade en möjlighet för myndigheterna att använda hemliga tvångsmedel som teleavlyssning, teleövervakning, kameraövervakning och postkontroll för att hindra kriminella beteenden innan brott begås. Lagarna innebär en utvidgning av tillämpningsområdet för hemlig tvångsmedelsanvändning vilket betyder utökade befogenheter för de brottsbekämpande myndigheterna men också ett större ingrepp i enskildas privatliv. Lagarna tidsbegränsades därför... (More)
I januari 2008 trädde två nya lagar ikraft i Sverige. Lagen (2007:978) om hemlig rumsavlyssning gav de brottsbekämpande myndigheterna rätten att använda en ny metod, rumsavlyssning för att utreda redan begångna brott och lagen (2007:979) om åtgärder för att förhindra vissa särskilt allvarliga brott introducerade en möjlighet för myndigheterna att använda hemliga tvångsmedel som teleavlyssning, teleövervakning, kameraövervakning och postkontroll för att hindra kriminella beteenden innan brott begås. Lagarna innebär en utvidgning av tillämpningsområdet för hemlig tvångsmedelsanvändning vilket betyder utökade befogenheter för de brottsbekämpande myndigheterna men också ett större ingrepp i enskildas privatliv. Lagarna tidsbegränsades därför till utgången av december 2010. Nyligen, efter att ha utvärderat lagarnas effektivitet har de förlängts till utgången av 2012 trots det faktum att lagarna tillämpats i väldigt få fall med ingen eller mycket begränsad effekt.

För att ingreppet i den personliga integriteten, som lagarna innebär, skall vara godtagbart i ett demokratiskt samhälle skall det vara proportionerligt i förhållande till det ändamål som eftersträvas. Detta ger både Regeringsformen och Europakonventionen stöd för. Jag har med hjälp av ett antal grundläggande villkor, som professor Janne Flyghed uppställer på ett införande av integritetskränkande lagstiftning, undersökt om lagarna är förenliga med den begränsning i rätten till privatlivet som artikel 8.2 EKMR medger. Villkoren grundar sig på ett hot-, ett effektivitets- och ett proportionalitetsrekvisit. Enligt min uppfattning är villkoren dåligt uppfyllda. Det saknas vetenskapliga belägg gällande hotens allvar liksom det saknas vetenskapliga studier beträffande effektiviteten hos de olika metoderna för tvångsmedelsanvändning. Det har heller inte gjorts någon djupare analys av tvångsmedlens inverkan på integriteten vilket resulterar i omöjligheten att göra en rättvis proportionalitetsavvägning. Detta är betänkligt med tanke på beslutet att förlänga de båda lagarna.

Jag har även undersökt om kraven på ett effektivt rättsmedel enligt artikel 13 EKMR är uppfyllt. Detta är av särskilt intresse när det gäller hemliga tvångsmedel eftersom den som blivit utsatt ofta saknar vetskap om ingreppet och därmed inte har möjligheten att klaga. Jag har funnit att det finns goda möjligheter för enskilda att få reda på om ingreppet varit lagenligt. I samband med lagarnas införande inrättades ett oberoende organ, Säkerhets- och Integritetsskyddsnämnden som har i uppgift att övervaka de brottsbekämpande myndigheterna i sin tvångsmedelsutövning. Nämnden är också skyldig att utföra särskilda kontroller på begäran av enskilda. Sammantaget har inrättandet av nämnden kommit att uppväga lite av det integritetsintrång som lagarna medför.

In January 2008 two new legislations entered into force in Sweden. The law (2007:978) on bugging gave the crime fighting authorities the right to use a new method, bugging, to investigate already committed crimes and the law (2007:979) on measures to prevent particularly serious crimes introduced a possibility for the authorities to use secret surveillance as telephone tapping, wire monitoring, fixed camera surveillance and control of correspondence to thwart criminal behavior before a crime was committed. The legislations implies an expansion of the application area of secret surveillance which means extended powers for the crime fighting authorities but also a larger encroachment in the private life of individuals. The regulations where therefore limited in time until the end of December 2010. Recently, after evaluating the effectiveness of the new legislations they have been prolonged until the end of 2012 despite of the fact that the laws have been used in very few cases with no or very little effect.

In order to consider the encroachment of the personal integrity, as the legislations implies, as necessary in a democratic society it has to be proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued. Both the Swedish Instrument of Government (Regeringsformen) and the European Convention of Human Rights support this. I have with the assistance of a number of basic conditions, which Professor Janne Flyghed states on entering legislation violating integrity, inquired if the laws are consistent with the limitation of the right to private life which article 8.2 ECHR admits. The conditions are based on a threat- , efficiency- and a proportionate condition. In my opinion the conditions are poorly fulfilled. There is a lack of scientific evidence concerning the gravity of the treats and also a lack of scientific investigations of the efficiency of methods of secret surveillance. Nor has there been an in depth analysis of the impact on integrity caused by secret surveillance which leads to the impossibility of making a fair weighing of the proportionality. This is quite precarious, bearing in mind the decision of prolonging the legislations.

I have further inquired if the demands of an effective remedy are fulfilled in accordance with article 13 ECHR. This is of main interest when it comes to secret surveillance since the person who`s been exposed in most cases is in lack of knowledge of the encroachment and therefore don’t have the ability to make a claim. I have concluded that there are sufficient possibilities for individuals to find out if the encroachment had been statutory. In the time of the enforcement of the laws an independent board was established, the Security and Integrity board which has in mission to oversee the crime fighting authorities in its use of secret surveillance methods. The board also has the duty to perform certain investigations by the request of individuals. Summing up the establishment of the board has lead to a small compensation of the encroachment of the integrity which the legislations bring. (Less)
Abstract
In January 2008 two new legislations entered into force in Sweden. The law (2007:978) on bugging gave the crime fighting authorities the right to use a new method, bugging, to investigate already committed crimes and the law (2007:979) on measures to prevent particularly serious crimes introduced a possibility for the authorities to use secret surveillance as telephone tapping, wire monitoring, fixed camera surveillance and control of correspondence to thwart criminal behavior before a crime was committed. The legislations implies an expansion of the application area of secret surveillance which means extended powers for the crime fighting authorities but also a larger encroachment in the private life of individuals. The regulations where... (More)
In January 2008 two new legislations entered into force in Sweden. The law (2007:978) on bugging gave the crime fighting authorities the right to use a new method, bugging, to investigate already committed crimes and the law (2007:979) on measures to prevent particularly serious crimes introduced a possibility for the authorities to use secret surveillance as telephone tapping, wire monitoring, fixed camera surveillance and control of correspondence to thwart criminal behavior before a crime was committed. The legislations implies an expansion of the application area of secret surveillance which means extended powers for the crime fighting authorities but also a larger encroachment in the private life of individuals. The regulations where therefore limited in time until the end of December 2010. Recently, after evaluating the effectiveness of the new legislations they have been prolonged until the end of 2012 despite of the fact that the laws have been used in very few cases with no or very little effect.

In order to consider the encroachment of the personal integrity, as the legislations implies, as necessary in a democratic society it has to be proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued. Both the Swedish Instrument of Government (Regeringsformen) and the European Convention of Human Rights support this. I have with the assistance of a number of basic conditions, which Professor Janne Flyghed states on entering legislation violating integrity, inquired if the laws are consistent with the limitation of the right to private life which article 8.2 ECHR admits. The conditions are based on a threat- , efficiency- and a proportionate condition. In my opinion the conditions are poorly fulfilled. There is a lack of scientific evidence concerning the gravity of the treats and also a lack of scientific investigations of the efficiency of methods of secret surveillance. Nor has there been an in depth analysis of the impact on integrity caused by secret surveillance which leads to the impossibility of making a fair weighing of the proportionality. This is quite precarious, bearing in mind the decision of prolonging the legislations.

I have further inquired if the demands of an effective remedy are fulfilled in accordance with article 13 ECHR. This is of main interest when it comes to secret surveillance since the person who`s been exposed in most cases is in lack of knowledge of the encroachment and therefore don’t have the ability to make a claim. I have concluded that there are sufficient possibilities for individuals to find out if the encroachment had been statutory. In the time of the enforcement of the laws an independent board was established, the Security and Integrity board which has in mission to oversee the crime fighting authorities in its use of secret surveillance methods. The board also has the duty to perform certain investigations by the request of individuals. Summing up the establishment of the board has lead to a small compensation of the encroachment of the integrity which the legislations bring. (Less)
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author
Wikström, Malin LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
preventiva tvångsmedel, buggning, straffrätt, criminal law
language
Swedish
id
1763021
date added to LUP
2011-01-18 13:09:44
date last changed
2011-01-18 13:09:44
@misc{1763021,
  abstract     = {In January 2008 two new legislations entered into force in Sweden. The law (2007:978) on bugging gave the crime fighting authorities the right to use a new method, bugging, to investigate already committed crimes and the law (2007:979) on measures to prevent particularly serious crimes introduced a possibility for the authorities to use secret surveillance as telephone tapping, wire monitoring, fixed camera surveillance and control of correspondence to thwart criminal behavior before a crime was committed. The legislations implies an expansion of the application area of secret surveillance which means extended powers for the crime fighting authorities but also a larger encroachment in the private life of individuals. The regulations where therefore limited in time until the end of December 2010. Recently, after evaluating the effectiveness of the new legislations they have been prolonged until the end of 2012 despite of the fact that the laws have been used in very few cases with no or very little effect.

In order to consider the encroachment of the personal integrity, as the legislations implies, as necessary in a democratic society it has to be proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued. Both the Swedish Instrument of Government (Regeringsformen) and the European Convention of Human Rights support this. I have with the assistance of a number of basic conditions, which Professor Janne Flyghed states on entering legislation violating integrity, inquired if the laws are consistent with the limitation of the right to private life which article 8.2 ECHR admits. The conditions are based on a threat- , efficiency- and a proportionate condition. In my opinion the conditions are poorly fulfilled. There is a lack of scientific evidence concerning the gravity of the treats and also a lack of scientific investigations of the efficiency of methods of secret surveillance. Nor has there been an in depth analysis of the impact on integrity caused by secret surveillance which leads to the impossibility of making a fair weighing of the proportionality. This is quite precarious, bearing in mind the decision of prolonging the legislations. 

I have further inquired if the demands of an effective remedy are fulfilled in accordance with article 13 ECHR. This is of main interest when it comes to secret surveillance since the person who`s been exposed in most cases is in lack of knowledge of the encroachment and therefore don’t have the ability to make a claim. I have concluded that there are sufficient possibilities for individuals to find out if the encroachment had been statutory. In the time of the enforcement of the laws an independent board was established, the Security and Integrity board which has in mission to oversee the crime fighting authorities in its use of secret surveillance methods. The board also has the duty to perform certain investigations by the request of individuals. Summing up the establishment of the board has lead to a small compensation of the encroachment of the integrity which the legislations bring.},
  author       = {Wikström, Malin},
  keyword      = {preventiva tvångsmedel,buggning,straffrätt,criminal law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Buggning och preventiva tvångsmedel - En analys av lagarnas förenlighet med Europakonventionen},
  year         = {2011},
}