Advanced

Äktenskapet – ett rättsinstitut nött av tidens tand? En studie om äktenskaps­lagstiftningens moderna historia utifrån teorin om de normativa grundmönstren

Enoksson, Jakob LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Samhället genomgick under 1900-talet stora förändringar. Välfärdsstatens socialpolitiska reformer gjorde att familjens roll förändrades – allt fler av de funktioner som tidigare var förbehållna familjen kom nu att övertas av samhället. Kvinnans ekonomiska självständighet och jämställdhet med mannen stärktes. Kvinnor blev också i allt större utsträckning verksamma på arbetsmarknaden. Skilsmässotalen ökade kraftigt under 50 och 60-talen, trots en lagstiftning som fortfarande uppställde en rad restriktioner i rätten att erhålla äktenskapsskillnad. För att möta denna förändring och för att se till att äktenskapet skulle bevara sin starka ställning även framöver, genomgick äktenskapslagstiftningen, särskilt under 1970-talet, viktiga reformer.... (More)
Samhället genomgick under 1900-talet stora förändringar. Välfärdsstatens socialpolitiska reformer gjorde att familjens roll förändrades – allt fler av de funktioner som tidigare var förbehållna familjen kom nu att övertas av samhället. Kvinnans ekonomiska självständighet och jämställdhet med mannen stärktes. Kvinnor blev också i allt större utsträckning verksamma på arbetsmarknaden. Skilsmässotalen ökade kraftigt under 50 och 60-talen, trots en lagstiftning som fortfarande uppställde en rad restriktioner i rätten att erhålla äktenskapsskillnad. För att möta denna förändring och för att se till att äktenskapet skulle bevara sin starka ställning även framöver, genomgick äktenskapslagstiftningen, särskilt under 1970-talet, viktiga reformer. Mest betydelsefull var den nya synen på makarnas möjlighet att erhålla äktenskapsskillnad. Skilsmässan kan numera betraktas som en rättighet. Betänketiden som i vissa fall krävs, har hävdats, utgör den enda kvarvarande eftergiften för att främja familje¬stabiliteten. Också en makes möjlighet att efter äktenskapet erhålla underhållsbidrag har kommit att inskränkas väsentligt; huvudregeln är numera att vardera make efter äktenskaps¬skillnaden ska klara sig själva. I samband med äktenskaps¬balkens införande kom den, i nordisk rätt, så viktiga giftorätts¬gemenskapen att ifrågasättas; i strävandena efter jämställdhet och ekonomiskt oberoende mellan makarna diskuterades en ny princip för delning i samband med äktenskapets upplösning: återgångsdelning. Likadelningsprincipen kom emellertid att bestå, men i vissa fall inskränkas genom möjligheten till skevdelning när resultaten vid bodelning annars skulle bli alltför orimliga. Ett paradigmskifte vad gäller synen på vad som är en legitim samlevnad kom att ske när samboskapet utvecklades till ett eget rättsinstitut. Fortfarande är emellertid samboregleringen begränsad till att vara en skyddslagstiftning med begränsade rättsverkningar för de samboende.

I uppsatsen analyseras dessa viktiga förändringar utifrån Anna Christensens teori om de normativa grundmönstren. Den förändring av äktenskapet, som skett, från ett livsvarigt statusförhållande till ett kontraktsförhållande, med stor frihet för makarna att bryta samlevnaden närhelst de önskar, beskrivs. Det skildras vidare hur den rättsliga regleringen påverkas av de normativa polerna gemenskap och individualitet/oberoende. Makarnas egendoms¬förhållanden under äktenskapet präglas av ekonomiskt oberoende, men också av polen gemenskap eftersom lagstiftaren förutsätter makarnas ekonomiska samarbete under äktenskapet. Efter äktenskapet har dock polen individualitet/oberoende allt mer kommit att dra regleringen till sig, genom den inskränkta möjligheten för makar att erhålla underhållsbidrag. Fortfarande är gemenskapstanken ett fundament för giftorätten och den likadelning som ska ske när äktenskapet upplöses. Den fortsatta utvecklingen är troligen beroende av hur jämställdheten mellan kvinnor och män i framtiden gestaltar sig. Mycket pekar dock på att polen individualitet/oberoende även i fortsättningen kommer att utöva en stark dragningskraft på den rättsliga regleringen. (Less)
Abstract
The society has experienced major changes in the 20th century. The social politics of the Swedish welfare state has impacted the family role. Important functions which were earlier carried out within the family, is now provided by the social welfare system. The economical independency of the spouses and gender equality strengthened during this period. An additional important factor for the reformation of the society was the women’s entrance into the labour market. The divorce rate rose quite dramatically during the 1950’s and 60’s, even though the legislation sustained restrictions obstructing divorce. Great efforts were made to modernize the legislation in the 1970’s in order to meet the new reality, but also to emphasize the prominent... (More)
The society has experienced major changes in the 20th century. The social politics of the Swedish welfare state has impacted the family role. Important functions which were earlier carried out within the family, is now provided by the social welfare system. The economical independency of the spouses and gender equality strengthened during this period. An additional important factor for the reformation of the society was the women’s entrance into the labour market. The divorce rate rose quite dramatically during the 1950’s and 60’s, even though the legislation sustained restrictions obstructing divorce. Great efforts were made to modernize the legislation in the 1970’s in order to meet the new reality, but also to emphasize the prominent status of the marriage. The by far most important reform related to the grounds to apply for divorce. Divorce was from now on granted without restrictions, even though sometimes postponed by the stipulated time for consideration. This additional period of time, during which the couple remains married, is claimed to be the only remaining concession to support of the family stability. The possibility to acquire alimony has also been limited. Today the main principle is that spouses, after separation, should be self-supporting. The established Swedish principle, where an equal division of matrimonial property shall be executed after the dissolution of the marriage, was questioned in the preparatory work of the Marriage Code. Alternate ways of division possibly better supporting the aims of gender equality and economical independence between the spouses was proposed. Still it didn’t result in a new principle, but a method to adjust unreasonable results of the division of property, was introduced. A paradigm shift regarding the definition of legitimate partnership occurred when cohabitation developed to its own legal institute. However, the Cohabitees Act is still constrained to being a protective legislation, with limited legal impact on the partners.

This paper analyzes these important changes, using Anna Christensen’s ”Theory of Normative Patterns”. The transformation of the marriage, from a lifelong status relation to a contractual relation, with the right to break the partnership, whenever desired, is described. Furthermore, the impact of the legal regulation on the normative poles community and individuality/ independence, is discussed. The property status of the spouses during the marriage is characterised by economical independence, but also of the pole of community, as the legislator presuppose an economical cooperation between the spouses during the marriage. Post marriage, the individuality/ independence pole has increasingly become a focus for the legislation, through the restricted possibility for spouses to obtain alimony. Still, the idea of community is a ground stone of the matrimonial property and the equal sharing principle, which shall be executed when the marriage is dissolved. The continued development will probably depend on the progress of the gender equality. Most likely, the pole individuality/ independence will continue to make a strong impact on the legal regulation. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Enoksson, Jakob LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Marriage – a legal institution affected by the ravage of time? A study concerning the modern history of the Swedish marriage regulation based on the theory of normative patterns
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
1768328
date added to LUP
2011-01-24 11:47:29
date last changed
2011-01-24 11:47:29
@misc{1768328,
  abstract     = {The society has experienced major changes in the 20th century. The social politics of the Swedish welfare state has impacted the family role. Important functions which were earlier carried out within the family, is now provided by the social welfare system. The economical independency of the spouses and gender equality strengthened during this period. An additional important factor for the reformation of the society was the women’s entrance into the labour market. The divorce rate rose quite dramatically during the 1950’s and 60’s, even though the legislation sustained restrictions obstructing divorce. Great efforts were made to modernize the legislation in the 1970’s in order to meet the new reality, but also to emphasize the prominent status of the marriage. The by far most important reform related to the grounds to apply for divorce. Divorce was from now on granted without restrictions, even though sometimes postponed by the stipulated time for consideration. This additional period of time, during which the couple remains married, is claimed to be the only remaining concession to support of the family stability. The possibility to acquire alimony has also been limited.  Today the main principle is that spouses, after separation, should be self-supporting. The established Swedish principle, where an equal division of matrimonial property shall be executed after the dissolution of the marriage, was questioned in the preparatory work of the Marriage Code. Alternate ways of division possibly better supporting the aims of gender equality and economical independence between the spouses was proposed. Still it didn’t result in a new principle, but a method to adjust unreasonable results of the division of property, was introduced. A paradigm shift regarding the definition of legitimate partnership occurred when cohabitation developed to its own legal institute. However, the Cohabitees Act is still constrained to being a protective legislation, with limited legal impact on the partners.
 
This paper analyzes these important changes, using Anna Christensen’s ”Theory of Normative  Patterns”. The transformation of the marriage, from a lifelong status relation to a contractual relation, with the right to break the partnership, whenever desired, is described.  Furthermore, the impact of the legal regulation on the normative poles community and individuality/ independence, is discussed. The property status of the spouses during the marriage is characterised by economical independence, but also of the pole of community, as the legislator presuppose an economical cooperation between the spouses during the marriage. Post marriage, the individuality/ independence pole has increasingly become a focus for the legislation, through the restricted possibility for spouses to obtain alimony. Still, the idea of community is a ground stone of the matrimonial property and the equal sharing principle, which shall be executed when the marriage is dissolved.  The continued development will probably depend on the progress of the gender equality.  Most likely, the pole individuality/ independence will continue to make a strong impact on the legal regulation.},
  author       = {Enoksson, Jakob},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Äktenskapet – ett rättsinstitut nött av tidens tand? En studie om äktenskaps­lagstiftningens moderna historia utifrån teorin om de normativa grundmönstren},
  year         = {2011},
}