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Generellt krav på prövningstillstånd i hovrätt - ett tillräckligt rättssäkert system?

Hed, Erika LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Det finns inga internationella åtaganden som innebär en skyldighet för Sverige att ge parter i tvistemål tillgång till en prövning av en andra instans. Dock ska parter enligt Europakonventionen om skydd för de mänskliga rättigheterna och de grundläggande friheterna tillförsäkras en rätt till domstolsprövning och en rättssäker process. En möjlighet till överprövning av den första instansens avgörande anses nödvändigt för att rättssäkerheten ska upprätthållas.

Den 1 november 2008, som en del av den större reformen En modernare rättegång (EMR), utvidgades kravet på prövningstillstånd i ledet mellan tingsrätt och hovrätt till att omfatta samtliga typer av tvistemål. Hovrätterna skulle genom utvidgningen bättre kunna fullgöra uppgiften att... (More)
Det finns inga internationella åtaganden som innebär en skyldighet för Sverige att ge parter i tvistemål tillgång till en prövning av en andra instans. Dock ska parter enligt Europakonventionen om skydd för de mänskliga rättigheterna och de grundläggande friheterna tillförsäkras en rätt till domstolsprövning och en rättssäker process. En möjlighet till överprövning av den första instansens avgörande anses nödvändigt för att rättssäkerheten ska upprätthållas.

Den 1 november 2008, som en del av den större reformen En modernare rättegång (EMR), utvidgades kravet på prövningstillstånd i ledet mellan tingsrätt och hovrätt till att omfatta samtliga typer av tvistemål. Hovrätterna skulle genom utvidgningen bättre kunna fullgöra uppgiften att kontrollera och rätta materiellt felaktiga tingsrättsavgöranden. I samband med utvidgningen förändrades tillståndsgrunderna och regleringen kring tillståndsförfarandet i syfte att göra tillståndsprövningen mer generös. Trots att regleringen får anses ge goda förutsättningar för en tillståndsprövning som innebär att systemet med ett generellt krav på prövningstillstånd är tillräckligt rättssäkert, kan konstateras att hovrätternas tillämpning av reglerna innebär att kravet på rättssäkerhet inte uppfylls. Denna slutsats grundar sig främst på att det skett en tydlig nedgång av ändringsfrekvensen (d.v.s. andelen mål som ändrats i hovrätten, av samtliga dit överklagade mål) efter utvidgningen av kravet på prövningstillstånd. Före utvidgningen var ändringsfrekvensen 26,8 %. Motsvarande siffra efter de nya reglernas ikraftträdande är 18,8 %. Det indikerar att hovrätterna, i större utsträckning än tidigare, nekar prövningstillstånd i mål som skulle ha fått en ändrad utgång om de hade tagits upp till en fullständig prövning. En granskning av statistiska uppgifter, sammantaget med antaganden gjorda i doktrinen, visar att hovrätterna uppställer ett beviskrav som innebär att det krävs klart övervägande sannolikhet för ändring av tingsrättsavgörandet, för att dispens ska beviljas. Ett så högt ställt beviskrav innebär att tillståndsgrunderna inte tillämpas på det generösa sätt som lagstiftaren avsett och som angavs vara en förutsättning för bibehållen rättssäkerhet. Statistiken tyder på att andelen beviljade prövningstillstånd efter de nya reglernas ikraftträdande har varit så låg att hovrätterna inte ens har haft en rimlig möjlighet att finna alla felaktiga tingsrättsavgöranden.

En målstudie av de mål som efter de nya reglernas ikraftträdande beviljats prövningstillstånd i Hovrätten över Skåne och Blekinge visar att det är mycket svårt att avgöra under vilka förutsättningar prövningstillstånd beviljas. Detta sammantaget med att beslut i tillståndsfrågan som regel inte motiveras innebär att det är svårt för parter och ombud att veta hur överklagandeskriften ska utformas för att det överklagade målet ska tas upp till fullständig prövning.

Hovrätternas tillståndsprövning har i flera fall underkänts av HD. Vilken effekt det generella kravet på prövningstillstånd får beträffande rättssäkerheten beror därför till viss del på huruvida hovrätterna rättar sig efter HD:s bedömning. Effekten beror även på konsekvenserna av EMR i stort. Frigörs resurser och används de t.ex. för att stärka kvaliteten i tingsrätternas prövning kan det medföra att rättssäkerheten totalt sett upprätthålls. (Less)
Abstract
Even though the definition of legal certainty is controversial, it may be considered generally accepted that the substantive aspect of legal certainty requires that judicial decisions are substantially right. It is also quite clear that the formal aspect of legal certainty includes a requirement of predictability concerning judicial decision making.

Sweden has no enforceable international obligation to give parties in a civil case the opportunity to appeal to the second instance. The European Convention on Human Rights, however, grants everyone the right of access to court and the right to a fair judicial review. The possibility of receiving a review of the first instance decision is deemed necessary to ensure legal certainty.

The... (More)
Even though the definition of legal certainty is controversial, it may be considered generally accepted that the substantive aspect of legal certainty requires that judicial decisions are substantially right. It is also quite clear that the formal aspect of legal certainty includes a requirement of predictability concerning judicial decision making.

Sweden has no enforceable international obligation to give parties in a civil case the opportunity to appeal to the second instance. The European Convention on Human Rights, however, grants everyone the right of access to court and the right to a fair judicial review. The possibility of receiving a review of the first instance decision is deemed necessary to ensure legal certainty.

The 1st of November 2008 as part of a reform of the general courts, the scope of requirement of leave to appeal was extended to include all civil cases, when appealing against a decision from the Swedish District Court to the Swedish Court of Appeal. By way of this extension, the Court of Appeal was considered to be more effectively able to fulfill its task to supervise and correct decisions from the District Court. In connection with the extension, the grounds for appeal and the regulation concerning the proceedings (in which the decision is taken about leave of appeal) was amended to make the appraisal of the appeal more generous.

The regulations that are in force provide good grounds for the Court of Appeal to carry out an examination of the appeal, which would make the system satisfy the requirement of legal certainty. Nevertheless it has become evident that the way in which the Court of Appeal use the regulation means that this requirement is not satisfied in practice. This conclusion is primarily based on the distinct decline of the rate of amendments among the cases being appealed (the rate of amendment was 26,8 % before the extension and 18,8 % after the extension). This indicates that the Court of Appeal refuses leave to appeal, in a greater extent than before, in cases were they would have changed the outcome of the District Courts decision if leave to appeal would have been granted. A review of statistical data, together with assumptions made in the doctrine, shows that the Court of Appeal has applied a standard of proof that requires a very strong probability of change of the outcome to the District Courts decision for leave to appeal to be granted. Such a high standard of proof indicates that the grounds of appeal have not been applied in the generous way intended by the legislator. A generous examination was deemed to be necessary to fulfill the requirement of legal certainty. The statistical data indicates that the granted leave to appeal rate, after the enforcement of the new regulation, is not high enough for the Court of Appeal to have a reasonable chance to find all the incorrect decisions made by the District Court.

A study of the cases that have been applied to one of the Courts of Appeal (Hovrätten över Skåne och Blekinge) after the enactment of the new regulations, shows that it is hard to understand on which grounds and under which conditions the court grants leave to appeal. Because of this, and because the court does not give reasons for their decisions in questions of leave to appeal, the parties and their legal representatives must face difficulty in knowing how to formulate their writs of appeal.

The Supreme Court has, in several cases, criticized the Courts of Appeals´ decisions concerning the question of leave to appeal. The effects of the new system concerning legal certainty, to some extent, depend on whether the Courts of Appeal follow the Supreme Courts precedents. The effect of the new system concerning legal certainty also depends on which effects the reform of the general courts will have in total. (Less)
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author
Hed, Erika LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Leave to Appeal and Legal Certainty
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
civilrätt, prövningstillstånd, generellt krav på prövningstillstånd, ändringsdispens, granskningsdispens, rättsmedel, flerinstanssystem, ändringsfrekvens, rättssäkerhet, ändringssannolikhet, materiell rättssäkerhet, tillståndsprövning, tillståndsgrunder, processrätt
language
Swedish
additional info
erika_hed@hotmail.com
0704 - 19 00 42
id
1785182
date added to LUP
2011-02-09 14:27:28
date last changed
2011-02-09 14:27:28
@misc{1785182,
  abstract     = {Even though the definition of legal certainty is controversial, it may be considered generally accepted that the substantive aspect of legal certainty requires that judicial decisions are substantially right. It is also quite clear that the formal aspect of legal certainty includes a requirement of predictability concerning judicial decision making. 

Sweden has no enforceable international obligation to give parties in a civil case the opportunity to appeal to the second instance. The European Convention on Human Rights, however, grants everyone the right of access to court and the right to a fair judicial review. The possibility of receiving a review of the first instance decision is deemed necessary to ensure legal certainty. 

The 1st of November 2008 as part of a reform of the general courts, the scope of requirement of leave to appeal was extended to include all civil cases, when appealing against a decision from the Swedish District Court to the Swedish Court of Appeal. By way of this extension, the Court of Appeal was considered to be more effectively able to fulfill its task to supervise and correct decisions from the District Court. In connection with the extension, the grounds for appeal and the regulation concerning the proceedings (in which the decision is taken about leave of appeal) was amended to make the appraisal of the appeal more generous.

The regulations that are in force provide good grounds for the Court of Appeal to carry out an examination of the appeal, which would make the system satisfy the requirement of legal certainty. Nevertheless it has become evident that the way in which the Court of Appeal use the regulation means that this requirement is not satisfied in practice.  This conclusion is primarily based on the distinct decline of the rate of amendments among the cases being appealed (the rate of amendment was 26,8 % before the extension and 18,8 % after the extension). This indicates that the Court of Appeal refuses leave to appeal, in a greater extent than before, in cases were they would have changed the outcome of the District Courts decision if leave to appeal would have been granted. A review of statistical data, together with assumptions made in the doctrine, shows that the Court of Appeal has applied a standard of proof that requires a very strong probability of change of the outcome to the District Courts decision for leave to appeal to be granted. Such a high standard of proof indicates that the grounds of appeal have not been applied in the generous way intended by the legislator. A generous examination was deemed to be necessary to fulfill the requirement of legal certainty. The statistical data indicates that the granted leave to appeal rate, after the enforcement of the new regulation, is not high enough for the Court of Appeal to have a reasonable chance to find all the incorrect decisions made by the District Court.

A study of the cases that have been applied to one of the Courts of Appeal (Hovrätten över Skåne och Blekinge) after the enactment of the new regulations, shows that it is hard to understand on which grounds and under which conditions the court grants leave to appeal. Because of this, and because the court does not give reasons for their decisions in questions of leave to appeal, the parties and their legal representatives must face difficulty in knowing how to formulate their writs of appeal.

The Supreme Court has, in several cases, criticized the Courts of Appeals´ decisions concerning the question of leave to appeal. The effects of the new system concerning legal certainty, to some extent, depend on whether the Courts of Appeal follow the Supreme Courts precedents. The effect of the new system concerning legal certainty also depends on which effects the reform of the general courts will have in total.},
  author       = {Hed, Erika},
  keyword      = {civilrätt,prövningstillstånd,generellt krav på prövningstillstånd,ändringsdispens,granskningsdispens,rättsmedel,flerinstanssystem,ändringsfrekvens,rättssäkerhet,ändringssannolikhet,materiell rättssäkerhet,tillståndsprövning,tillståndsgrunder,processrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Generellt krav på prövningstillstånd i hovrätt - ett tillräckligt rättssäkert system?},
  year         = {2011},
}