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Det finansiella ansvaret för CO2-lagring - en studie de lege ferenda

Fritz, Carolin LU (2011) JURM01 20102
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning
Under 1960-talet kunde vetenskapsmän konstatera att en generell uppvärmning av atmosfären resulterade i klimatförändringar. En av källorna till den globala uppvärmningen var och är fortfarande den höga koncentrationen av växthusgaser i atmosfären som uppstår genom mänsklig aktivitet vid förbränning av fossila bränslen. Trots den vetskapen dröjde det en bit in på 2000-talet innan klimatförändringarna blev ett prioriterat ämne inom Europeiska unionen och EU utarbetade sitt klimat- och energipaket med unionens klimat- och energipolitiska mål för 2020. I samband med det presenterades även de åtgärder som måste vidtas för att nå upp till målen, en av åtgärderna var avskiljning och geologisk lagring av koldioxid (Carbon dioxide... (More)
Sammanfattning
Under 1960-talet kunde vetenskapsmän konstatera att en generell uppvärmning av atmosfären resulterade i klimatförändringar. En av källorna till den globala uppvärmningen var och är fortfarande den höga koncentrationen av växthusgaser i atmosfären som uppstår genom mänsklig aktivitet vid förbränning av fossila bränslen. Trots den vetskapen dröjde det en bit in på 2000-talet innan klimatförändringarna blev ett prioriterat ämne inom Europeiska unionen och EU utarbetade sitt klimat- och energipaket med unionens klimat- och energipolitiska mål för 2020. I samband med det presenterades även de åtgärder som måste vidtas för att nå upp till målen, en av åtgärderna var avskiljning och geologisk lagring av koldioxid (Carbon dioxide Capture and geological Storage) eller närmare bestämt CCS. För att CCS ska fylla sitt syfte inom EU är det av största vikt att verksamheten bedrivs på lika villkor och följaktligen regleras på gemenskapsnivå. Av den anledningen utarbetades CCS-direktivet som träder i kraft den 25 juni 2011 och som reglerar lagringen av koldioxid.

Uppsatsens fokus ligger på CCS-direktivets reglering av det finansiella ansvaret för koldioxidlagring. Direktivet innehåller emellertid flera obesvarade frågor kring det finansiella ansvaret som överlåtits åt medlemsstaterna själva att lagstifta om på nationell nivå i enlighet med subsidiaritetsprincipen. Dessa obesvarade frågor ska i uppsatsen lösas de lege ferenda. För att få inspiration till hur staterna kan lösa de obesvarade frågorna om det finansiella ansvaret kommer den svenska lagstiftningen om det finansiella ansvaret för slutförvaring av kärnavfall att utgöra vägledning. Skälet till att använda sig av just kärnkraftslagstiftningen vid en studie de lege ferenda är för att det för slutförvaring av kärnavfall likväl som för koldioxidlagring rör sig om långsiktig lagring där den juridiska personen som är finansiellt ansvarig för verksamheten troligtvis inte existerar för evigt. För båda typerna av verksamhet krävs således att finansiella medel avsätts inför framtida lagring för att undvika att staten som sistahandsansvarig ska behöva stå för kostnaderna. Av den anledningen bygger både det finansiella ansvaret för koldioxidlagring och slutförvar av kärnavfall på en avvägning mellan den samhällsnytta som verksamheten tillför och den risk staten tar som sistahandsansvarig för det finansiella ansvaret. Den fundamentala likheten mellan de två lagstiftningarnas ändamål är i detta fall nyckeln till de lege ferenda med realistiska lösningar på de obesvarade frågor som CCS-direktivet lämnat. Till följd härav har de lege ferenda studien kunnat ge förslag på vilken typ av finansiell säkerhet som bör användas för koldioxidlagring samt hur den finansiella säkerhetens storlek ska fastställas och betalas in på ett säkert sätt. Det är dock inte endast de obesvarade frågor som CCS-direktivet uttryckligen stadgat att medlemsstaterna ska lagstifta om som de lege ferenda studien kunnat ge förslag på, utan även andra företeelser som staterna bör reflektera över när de utformar sin nationella lagstiftning. Som ett exempel på något som staterna bör överväga är, att göra avgiften som betalas in till den finansiella säkerheten beroende av antalet ton koldioxid som lagras. (Less)
Abstract
Summary
In the 1960’s scientists discovered that general heating of the atmosphere or global warming results in climate change. One of the reasons behind global warming is the high concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere, which is a bi-product of fossil fuel combustion caused by human activity. Climate change did not become a European Union priority before the 21st century when the climate- and energy package was published stating the European Union climate and energy targets for 2020. In addition to the goals, the measures that will be taken to reach them were presented. One such measure was Carbon dioxide Capture and geological Storage, also known as CCS. In order for CCS to serve its purpose within the EU it is of great... (More)
Summary
In the 1960’s scientists discovered that general heating of the atmosphere or global warming results in climate change. One of the reasons behind global warming is the high concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere, which is a bi-product of fossil fuel combustion caused by human activity. Climate change did not become a European Union priority before the 21st century when the climate- and energy package was published stating the European Union climate and energy targets for 2020. In addition to the goals, the measures that will be taken to reach them were presented. One such measure was Carbon dioxide Capture and geological Storage, also known as CCS. In order for CCS to serve its purpose within the EU it is of great importance that it is operated under the same conditions and consequently regulated at Community level. This is the reason why the CCS Directive was established for carbon dioxide storage, a directive that will enter into force on June 25th 2011.

This Master's thesis is focused on the CCS Directive’s regulation of the financial liability of carbon dioxide storage. The directive, however, contains several unanswered questions with regards to the financial liability, questions that the member states are expected to regulate at national level according to the principle of subsidiary. These unanswered questions will be answered in this essay, using proposals according to de lege ferenda. Inspiration and guidance as to how the states can solve the unanswered questions about the financial liability for long-term storage has come from the Swedish nuclear law. The reason for applying the nuclear law to this de lege ferenda study is that carbon dioxide storage along with final storage of nuclear waste concern very long-periods of time, where the juridical person, with its financial liability for the activity, most likely will not see the end of the storage period. In both cases it is a requirement that funds are dedicated to future storage in order to avoid the state for being ultimately responsible to carry the cost. Consequently, the financial liability for nuclear waste and for carbon dioxide storage are both based on a question which require careful consideration; on the one hand, the public benefit that the activity brings, and on the other, the state’s risk being ultimate responsible for the financial liability. This fundamental similarity between the purposes of the two legislations is in this case the clue to the de lege ferenda study, which brings realistic solutions to the CCS Directive’s unanswered questions. The proposed de lege ferenda study has therefore answered the questions of for example the type of financial security the operator should apply and how the cost of the financial security should be estimated and securely set aside. However, it is not just the unanswered questions that the CCS Directive has required the Member States to regulate; this de lege ferenda study has come to answer. The study has also brought clarity to issues the states need to take into consideration when forming the national legislation. An example would in this case be the proposal to make the fee of the financial security a function of the amount of stored carbon dioxide. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Fritz, Carolin LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The Financial Liability of CO2 Storage - A de Lege Ferenda Study
course
JURM01 20102
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Miljörätt, Environmental Law, CCS, Carbon Dioxide Capture and Geological Storage, Carbon Dioxide Storage, Fångst- och geologisk lagring av koldioxid, Koldioxidlagring, Lagring av koldioxid
language
Swedish
id
1963147
date added to LUP
2011-05-24 16:21:41
date last changed
2011-05-24 16:21:41
@misc{1963147,
  abstract     = {Summary 
In the 1960’s scientists discovered that general heating of the atmosphere or global warming results in climate change. One of the reasons behind global warming is the high concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere, which is a bi-product of fossil fuel combustion caused by human activity. Climate change did not become a European Union priority before the 21st century when the climate- and energy package was published stating the European Union climate and energy targets for 2020. In addition to the goals, the measures that will be taken to reach them were presented. One such measure was Carbon dioxide Capture and geological Storage, also known as CCS. In order for CCS to serve its purpose within the EU it is of great importance that it is operated under the same conditions and consequently regulated at Community level. This is the reason why the CCS Directive was established for carbon dioxide storage, a directive that will enter into force on June 25th 2011.  

This Master's thesis is focused on the CCS Directive’s regulation of the financial liability of carbon dioxide storage. The directive, however, contains several unanswered questions with regards to the financial liability, questions that the member states are expected to regulate at national level according to the principle of subsidiary. These unanswered questions will be answered in this essay, using proposals according to de lege ferenda. Inspiration and guidance as to how the states can solve the unanswered questions about the financial liability for long-term storage has come from the Swedish nuclear law. The reason for applying the nuclear law to this de lege ferenda study is that carbon dioxide storage along with final storage of nuclear waste concern very long-periods of time, where the juridical person, with its financial liability for the activity, most likely will not see the end of the storage period. In both cases it is a requirement that funds are dedicated to future storage in order to avoid the state for being ultimately responsible to carry the cost. Consequently, the financial liability for nuclear waste and for carbon dioxide storage are both based on a question which require careful consideration; on the one hand, the public benefit that the activity brings, and on the other, the state’s risk being ultimate responsible for the financial liability. This fundamental similarity between the purposes of the two legislations is in this case the clue to the de lege ferenda study, which brings realistic solutions to the CCS Directive’s unanswered questions. The proposed de lege ferenda study has therefore answered the questions of for example the type of financial security the operator should apply and how the cost of the financial security should be estimated and securely set aside. However, it is not just the unanswered questions that the CCS Directive has required the Member States to regulate; this de lege ferenda study has come to answer. The study has also brought clarity to issues the states need to take into consideration when forming the national legislation. An example would in this case be the proposal to make the fee of the financial security a function of the amount of stored carbon dioxide.},
  author       = {Fritz, Carolin},
  keyword      = {Miljörätt,Environmental Law,CCS,Carbon Dioxide Capture and Geological Storage,Carbon Dioxide Storage,Fångst- och geologisk lagring av koldioxid,Koldioxidlagring,Lagring av koldioxid},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Det finansiella ansvaret för CO2-lagring - en studie de lege ferenda},
  year         = {2011},
}