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Omhändertaganden av romska barn – en studie om minoritetsstatus i LVU-ärenden

Mårtensson, Emma LU (2011) JURM01 20111
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats behandlar frågeställningar rörande romska barn, dvs. barn med minoritetsstatus i LVU-ärenden (lagen om vård av unga). Uppsatsens syfte är att studera hur rättsväsendet hanterar LVU-ärenden som berör romska barn och att undersöka om rättsväsendet vidtar speciella åtgärder för att garantera de romska barnen sina minoritetsrättigheter. Uppsatsens har även två delysften, att kortfattat beskriva romernas historia i Sverige samt att beskriva olika rättsliga instrument, nationella och internationella, som finns rörande nationella minoriteter. Instrumenten som beskrivs är relevanta för LVU-ärenden som rör romska barn.

Uppsatsen kommer att behandla följande fem frågeställningar:
1. Hur har romernas historia kortfattat sett ut i... (More)
Denna uppsats behandlar frågeställningar rörande romska barn, dvs. barn med minoritetsstatus i LVU-ärenden (lagen om vård av unga). Uppsatsens syfte är att studera hur rättsväsendet hanterar LVU-ärenden som berör romska barn och att undersöka om rättsväsendet vidtar speciella åtgärder för att garantera de romska barnen sina minoritetsrättigheter. Uppsatsens har även två delysften, att kortfattat beskriva romernas historia i Sverige samt att beskriva olika rättsliga instrument, nationella och internationella, som finns rörande nationella minoriteter. Instrumenten som beskrivs är relevanta för LVU-ärenden som rör romska barn.

Uppsatsen kommer att behandla följande fem frågeställningar:
1. Hur har romernas historia kortfattat sett ut i Sverige?
2. Övergripande, vad innebär det att tillhöra en nationell minoritet i Sverige?
3. Kortfattat, vad är det huvudsakliga syftet med lagstiftningen om nationella minoriteter?
4. Hur bör lagstiftningen om minoriteter påverka de rättsliga instanser som handhar LVU-ärenden med romska barn?
5. Vilka speciella åtgärder vidtar rättsväsendet för att garantera de romska barnen sin kultur och identitet under processens olika moment?

Romerna har en historisk bakgrund som kantats av förföljelse och förtryck. Romerna kom till Sverige år 1512. Sverige var inte välkomnande mot romerna och år 1637 utfärdades den allmänna zigenarförordningen som innebar att alla romer skulle utvisas. Även i 1914 års utlänningslag fastslogs att romer inte var önskvärda i riket. De romska barnen har genom historien varit särskilt utsatta. Under början av 1900-talet vidtogs barnauktioner där de romska barnen auktionerades bort. På 1920-talet inrättades särskilda hem för romska barn med syftet att assimilera barnen i det svenska majoritetssamhället. Även efter andra världskriget tvångsomhändertogs många romska barn för samhällsvård. Först 1959 fick barnen rätt till skolgång i Sverige.

Sverige ratificerade år 2000 Europarådets ramkonvention om skydd av nationella minoriteter och romerna erkändes då som en av fem nationella minoriteter i Sverige. Det innebär att Sveriges romer har ett särskilt skydd och att det ska vidtas speciella åtgärder för att garantera romerna sin kultur, språk och identitet. All diskriminering på grund av tillhörighet till en nationell minoritet är förbjuden. Sverige ska vidta lämpliga åtgärder inom alla områden inom det ekonomiska, sociala, politiska och kulturella livet och därmed främja jämlikheten mellan de nationella minoriteterna och majoritetsbefolkningen.

Av olika rapporter från Socialstyrelsen och DO (Diskrimineringsombudsmannen) har det framgått att Sverige inte uppfyller minoritetslagstiftningen rörande folkgruppen romer. Socialstyrelsen vidtog bland annat en rapport år 2006 som visar att Socialtjänsten inte har tillräcklig kunskap rörande romska barn i LVU-ärenden. I DO:s rapport, Diskriminering av romer i Sverige, framgår att många romer upplever Sverige som ett rasistiskt land samt att 80% av de tillfrågade romerna inte hade något förtroende för socialtjänsten.

Den 1 januari år 2010 kom lagen om nationella minoriteter och minoritetsspråk. För närvarande finns delegationen Romers rätt – en strategi för romer i Sverige hos regeringen för beredning. Delegationen ska vara nationellt pådrivande i arbetet för att förbättra romers situation i Sverige. Delegationen anger att Sveriges romer lever under sämre förutsättningar och förhållanden än genomsnittet på grund av sin etnicitet. Delegationens huvudsyfte är att säkerställa romers tillgång till sina mänskliga rättigheter och minoritetsrättigheter. Delegationen kräver uthållighet, det bedöms behövas insatser under ca 20 år. Delegationen lämnar en rad förslag inom många olika områden, tex. rätt till utbildning och bostad. Det föreslås även att regeringen inrättar ett Sekretariat för romska frågor som har till syfte att stänga välfärdsgapet mellan romer och majoritetssamhället. Delegationen föreslår även att en sannings- och försoningskommission ska inrättas för att kartlägga och dokumentera de övergrepp, försummelser och diskriminerande åtgärder som begåtts mot den romska minoriteten.

För att få djup i uppsatsen innehåller den även en empirisk del som består av intervjuer med rådmän, socialsekreterare och politiker. Samtliga intervjuade rådmän och socialsekreterare uppger att de inte behandlar romska barn i LVU-ärenden på något speciellt eller annorlunda sätt. De intervjuade uppger att alla barn ska behandlas lika med barnets bästa principen i fokus. På frågan vad de gör för att garantera ett romskt barn rätten till sin kultur och identitet är svaret entydigt. Det första steget är att placera barnet inom sitt nätverk. Om det inte går placeras barnet oftast i ett svenskt familjehem. På grund av lite tid och resurser framkommer det att barnets kultur ofta ses som en basal omständighet som inte prioriteras. Det framkommer även att det råder kunskapsbrist om vad en nationell minoritet är och vilka rättigheter som åtnjuter minoritetsgrupperna. Därefter intervjuades även Maria Leissner, ordförande i delegationen Romers rätt – en strategi för romer i Sverige. Hon angav att rättsväsendet inte tar hänsyn till det romska barnets minoritetsstatus i LVU-ärenden. Hon anförde även att rapporten från Socialstyrelsen år 2006 fortfarande är aktuell då det fortfarande råder stor kunskapsbrist hos socialtjänsten angående minoritetslagstiftningen. Delegationen har vidtagit undersökningar som visar att kommuner och dylikt inte visste om att det är okej att vidta särskilda åtgärder för minoritetsgrupper.

I uppsatsens analys konstateras att de romska barnens minoritetsstatus inte beaktas i LVU-ärenden och att kunskapen är alldeles för låg hos rättsväsendet angående Sveriges nationella minoriteter. Kunskapen måste först öka hos Sveriges beslutsfattare för att sedan komma ner på individnivå och därmed vardagsnivå. Även skolan borde ta sitt ansvar och börja undervisa om Sveriges nationella minoriteter och vad det innebär att tillhöra en nationell minoritet. Genom delegationen, Romers rätt – en strategi för romer i Sverige, har nu romers situation kommit på tapeten. Jag hoppas att regeringen inser att det är stora insatser som behövs för att garantera romerna de rättigheter som Sverige är skyldiga att ge. Förhoppningsvis ses då även en ljusning i LVU-ärendena rörande romska barn då rättsväsendet fått en ökad kunskap och är medvetna om att de ska vidta speciella åtgärder för att garantera barnet sina rättigheter. (Less)
Abstract
This essay deals with issues concerning the Romani children, i.e. children with minority status in LVU cases (the law on the care of youth). The essays main purpose is to study how the legal system handles LVU cases involving Romani children and to investigate if the judiciary is taking special measures to ensure the Romani children their minority rights. The essay also aims to briefly describe the history of the Romani people in Sweden and also to describe the various legal instruments, national and international, that are applicable concerning national minorities. The instruments described are relevant to the LVU cases involving Romani children.
The essay will address five issues:

1. Briefly, how have the Romani peoples history... (More)
This essay deals with issues concerning the Romani children, i.e. children with minority status in LVU cases (the law on the care of youth). The essays main purpose is to study how the legal system handles LVU cases involving Romani children and to investigate if the judiciary is taking special measures to ensure the Romani children their minority rights. The essay also aims to briefly describe the history of the Romani people in Sweden and also to describe the various legal instruments, national and international, that are applicable concerning national minorities. The instruments described are relevant to the LVU cases involving Romani children.
The essay will address five issues:

1. Briefly, how have the Romani peoples history looked like in Sweden?
2. Overall, what does it mean to belong to a national minority in Sweden?
3. Briefly, what is the main purpose of the legislation on national minorities?
4. How should the law on minorities influence the judicial authorities dealing with LVU cases of Romani children?
5. Which special measures are being taken by the justice system to ensure Romani children their culture and identity during the legal process?

The Romani people have a historical background filled by persecution and oppression. They came to Sweden in 1512. Sweden was not welcoming to the Romani people and in 1637 the general Romani constitution was issued which meant that all Romani people would be deported. Even the 1914 Aliens Act stated that the Romani people were not desirable in the country. Romani children have historically been particularly exposed. During the early 1900th century there were child-auctions held where Romani children were auctioned off. In the 1920s, the communities established special homes for Romani children in order to assimilate the children into the Swedish majority society. Even after World War II many Romani children were taken into care by the authorities. Not until 1959 did Sweden’s Romani children gain the right to permanent education.

Sweden ratified in 2000 the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the Romani people were recognized as one of five national minorities in Sweden. This means that Sweden's Romani people have added protection and that special measures would be taken to secure the Romani people their culture, language and identity. Any discrimination because of belonging to a national minority is prohibited. Sweden will take appropriate measures in all areas of economic, social, political and cultural life and thus promote the equality of national minorities and majority populations.

In various reports from The National Board of Health and Welfare and the Discrimination and Equality Union, it has been revealed that Sweden does not meet the minority rights legislation regarding the Romani people. The National Board of Health and Welfare took part in a report in 2006 showing that Social Services do not have sufficient knowledge of the Romani children in LVU cases. The report Discrimination against Romani people in Sweden, established by the Discrimination and Equality Union, shows that many Romani people experience Sweden as a racist country and that 80% of the surveyed Romani’s had no confidence in social services.

On January 1st 2010, the law on national minorities and minority languages came. Currently, the delegation Romani rights - a strategy for Romani people in Sweden, is with the Government for processing. The delegation is to be proactive in national efforts to improve the situation of Romani people in Sweden. The delegation indicates that Sweden's Romani people live in poorer conditions and circumstances than the average person because of their ethnicity. The delegation's main purpose is to ensure the Romani people access to their human rights and minority rights. The delegation requires patience, it is estimated necessary action is needed during the coming 20 years. The delegation leaves a number of suggestions in many different areas, for example, the right to education and housing. It is also proposed that the government set up a Secretariat for the Romani people issues which aim to close the prosperity gap between Romani people and majority society. The delegation also suggested that a Truth and Reconciliation Commission will be established to identify and document the abuse, neglect and discriminatory practices committed against the Romani minority.

To get depth in this essay, it also contains an empirical part consisting of interviews with aldermen, social workers and politicians. All interviewed aldermen, and social workers say they do not treat Romani children in LVU cases in any special or different way. Those interviewed stated that all children should be treated equally with the best interests of the children in mind. When asked what they do to ensure Romani children right to their culture and identity, the answer is unequivocal. The first step is to place the child within its own network. If that is not possible, the child is usually placed in a Swedish family. Because of time and resources it becomes clear that the child's culture is often seen as a fundamental fact which is not prioritised. It appears also that there is a lack of knowledge about what a national minority is and the rights concerning minority groups. Subsequently, an interview was held with Maria Leissner, president of the Delegation Romani rights - a strategy for Romani people in Sweden. She stated that the legal system does not take into account the Romani children's minority status in LVU cases. She also argued that the report from the National Board in 2006 is still relevant because there continues to be a great lack of knowledge with social services concerning minority law. The delegation has taken studies showing that the municipalities did not know if it is acceptable to take special measures for minority groups.

The essay’s analysis found that the Romani children's minority status is not considered in LVU cases and that there is a great lack of knowledge in the justice system regarding Sweden's national minorities. Knowledge must first increase in Swedish decision-makers and then come down to the individual personal level and consequently everyday life. The schools should also take responsibility and start teaching about Sweden's national minorities and what it means to belong to a national minority. Through the delegation, Romani rights - a strategy for Romani people in Sweden, the situation of the Romani people has now reached the news. I hope the government realise that there are major efforts needed to ensure Romani people the rights that Sweden is obliged to provide. Hopefully there will be an improvement in LVU cases concerning Romani children when the legal system has gained increased knowledge and are aware that they must take special measures to ensure the child its rights. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Mårtensson, Emma LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Dealing with Romani children in LVU cases - a study of minority status
course
JURM01 20111
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
den sociala dimensionen, familjerätt, LVU, barn
language
Swedish
id
2169925
date added to LUP
2011-10-19 15:50:07
date last changed
2011-10-19 15:50:07
@misc{2169925,
  abstract     = {This essay deals with issues concerning the Romani children, i.e. children with minority status in LVU cases (the law on the care of youth). The essays main purpose is to study how the legal system handles LVU cases involving Romani children and to investigate if the judiciary is taking special measures to ensure the Romani children their minority rights. The essay also aims to briefly describe the history of the Romani people in Sweden and also to describe the various legal instruments, national and international, that are applicable concerning national minorities. The instruments described are relevant to the LVU cases involving Romani children.
The essay will address five issues:

1.	Briefly, how have the Romani peoples history looked like in Sweden?
2.	Overall, what does it mean to belong to a national minority in Sweden?
3.	Briefly, what is the main purpose of the legislation on national minorities?
4.	How should the law on minorities influence the judicial authorities dealing with LVU cases of Romani children?
5.	Which special measures are being taken by the justice system to ensure Romani children their culture and identity during the legal process?

The Romani people have a historical background filled by persecution and oppression. They came to Sweden in 1512. Sweden was not welcoming to the Romani people and in 1637 the general Romani constitution was issued which meant that all Romani people would be deported. Even the 1914 Aliens Act stated that the Romani people were not desirable in the country. Romani children have historically been particularly exposed. During the early 1900th century there were child-auctions held where Romani children were auctioned off. In the 1920s, the communities established special homes for Romani children in order to assimilate the children into the Swedish majority society. Even after World War II many Romani children were taken into care by the authorities. Not until 1959 did Sweden’s Romani children gain the right to permanent education.

Sweden ratified in 2000 the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the Romani people were recognized as one of five national minorities in Sweden. This means that Sweden's Romani people have added protection and that special measures would be taken to secure the Romani people their culture, language and identity. Any discrimination because of belonging to a national minority is prohibited. Sweden will take appropriate measures in all areas of economic, social, political and cultural life and thus promote the equality of national minorities and majority populations.

In various reports from The National Board of Health and Welfare and the Discrimination and Equality Union, it has been revealed that Sweden does not meet the minority rights legislation regarding the Romani people. The National Board of Health and Welfare took part in a report in 2006 showing that Social Services do not have sufficient knowledge of the Romani children in LVU cases. The report Discrimination against Romani people in Sweden, established by the Discrimination and Equality Union, shows that many Romani people experience Sweden as a racist country and that 80% of the surveyed Romani’s had no confidence in social services.

On January 1st 2010, the law on national minorities and minority languages came. Currently, the delegation Romani rights - a strategy for Romani people in Sweden, is with the Government for processing. The delegation is to be proactive in national efforts to improve the situation of Romani people in Sweden. The delegation indicates that Sweden's Romani people live in poorer conditions and circumstances than the average person because of their ethnicity. The delegation's main purpose is to ensure the Romani people access to their human rights and minority rights. The delegation requires patience, it is estimated necessary action is needed during the coming 20 years. The delegation leaves a number of suggestions in many different areas, for example, the right to education and housing. It is also proposed that the government set up a Secretariat for the Romani people issues which aim to close the prosperity gap between Romani people and majority society. The delegation also suggested that a Truth and Reconciliation Commission will be established to identify and document the abuse, neglect and discriminatory practices committed against the Romani minority.

To get depth in this essay, it also contains an empirical part consisting of interviews with aldermen, social workers and politicians. All interviewed aldermen, and social workers say they do not treat Romani children in LVU cases in any special or different way. Those interviewed stated that all children should be treated equally with the best interests of the children in mind. When asked what they do to ensure Romani children right to their culture and identity, the answer is unequivocal. The first step is to place the child within its own network. If that is not possible, the child is usually placed in a Swedish family. Because of time and resources it becomes clear that the child's culture is often seen as a fundamental fact which is not prioritised. It appears also that there is a lack of knowledge about what a national minority is and the rights concerning minority groups. Subsequently, an interview was held with Maria Leissner, president of the Delegation Romani rights - a strategy for Romani people in Sweden. She stated that the legal system does not take into account the Romani children's minority status in LVU cases. She also argued that the report from the National Board in 2006 is still relevant because there continues to be a great lack of knowledge with social services concerning minority law. The delegation has taken studies showing that the municipalities did not know if it is acceptable to take special measures for minority groups.

The essay’s analysis found that the Romani children's minority status is not considered in LVU cases and that there is a great lack of knowledge in the justice system regarding Sweden's national minorities. Knowledge must first increase in Swedish decision-makers and then come down to the individual personal level and consequently everyday life. The schools should also take responsibility and start teaching about Sweden's national minorities and what it means to belong to a national minority. Through the delegation, Romani rights - a strategy for Romani people in Sweden, the situation of the Romani people has now reached the news. I hope the government realise that there are major efforts needed to ensure Romani people the rights that Sweden is obliged to provide. Hopefully there will be an improvement in LVU cases concerning Romani children when the legal system has gained increased knowledge and are aware that they must take special measures to ensure the child its rights.},
  author       = {Mårtensson, Emma},
  keyword      = {den sociala dimensionen,familjerätt,LVU,barn},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Omhändertaganden av romska barn – en studie om minoritetsstatus i LVU-ärenden},
  year         = {2011},
}