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Vitesförbud vid immaterialrättsintrång -en studie av sanktionsformens effektivitet

Wahlin, Sofia LU (2011) JURM01 20111
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Antalet olovliga nyttjanden av ensamrätter har ökat under de senaste åren. En immateriell rättighet som inte kan skyddas mot intrång saknar i många avseenden värde. Tillgången av verkningsfulla och effektiva sanktioner är därför en nödvändighet. År 1994 infördes en ny sanktionsform i varumärkes-, mönster- och upphovsrättslagen, nämligen vitesförbud. Sanktionsformen skulle förse rättighetsinnehavare med en möjlighet att effektivt sätta stopp för pågående intrång och förebygga att framtida intrång sker.


Syftet med förevarande juridiska analys är att granska om vitesförbud är en effektiv sanktionsform vid intrång i immateriella rättigheter. Inledningsvis görs vissa processrättsliga klassificeringar av mål om vitesförbud. Därefter... (More)
Antalet olovliga nyttjanden av ensamrätter har ökat under de senaste åren. En immateriell rättighet som inte kan skyddas mot intrång saknar i många avseenden värde. Tillgången av verkningsfulla och effektiva sanktioner är därför en nödvändighet. År 1994 infördes en ny sanktionsform i varumärkes-, mönster- och upphovsrättslagen, nämligen vitesförbud. Sanktionsformen skulle förse rättighetsinnehavare med en möjlighet att effektivt sätta stopp för pågående intrång och förebygga att framtida intrång sker.


Syftet med förevarande juridiska analys är att granska om vitesförbud är en effektiv sanktionsform vid intrång i immateriella rättigheter. Inledningsvis görs vissa processrättsliga klassificeringar av mål om vitesförbud. Därefter behandlas svenska statens internationella och europeiska åtaganden avseende sanktioner vid intrång i ensamrätter. Lagstiftarens intentioner med vitesförbudet kartläggs. Härefter gås närmare in på vem som har talerätt i mål om förbudsvite samt i vilka situationer förbud kan aktualiseras. Slutligen granskas de element som ett yrkande om vitesförbud utgörs av. Dessa element är följande: I) vitesförbudets adressat, II) intrångsföremål, III) förbudsåtgärder, IV) vitesbelopp, V) omfattning i rum och VI) omfattning i tid.

I uppsatsen dras följande slutsatser. Rättighetsinnehavare behöver vare sig visa subjektiv täckning hos intrångsgörare eller föra bevisning om intrångets skadeverkningar vid mål om vitesförbud. Detta medför att förbudsprocessen effektiviseras och rättighetsinnehavares möjlighet att erhålla förbud ökar. Rättsakter från EU har föranlett ändringar i regleringen om vitesförbud, vilka inneburit att situationerna när förbud kan utfärdas har utökats ytterligare. Möjligheterna att utverka extraterritoriella förbud har även ökat som en följd av harmoniseringen mellan medlemsstater.

Samtidigt sätter lagstiftaren upp krav på klarhet och precisering, avseende såväl parts yrkande som själva förbudets formulering. Vidare krävs att förbudet står i relation till det påstådda intrånget. Kraven tycks motiverade av proportionalitets-, rättssäkerhets-, och processekonomiska skäl. Ett allför vitt förbud kan även konsumera möjligheten att senare straffrättsligt åtala den svarande.

Kärandens utformning av förbudstalan är avgörande för vitesförbudets effektivitet. Oavsätt hur stora möjligheter som ges en rättighetsinnehavare att sätta stopp för intrångsgörande aktiviteter, kan inte olovliga nyttjanden på ett effektivt sätt förhindras, såvida inte sökanden utformar sitt förbudsyrkande på ett genomtänkt sätt. Hur ovan listade element i ett yrkande avgränsas är av stor betydelse för vitesförbudets effektivitet. Domstolen kan ex officio inom ramen för 17 kapitlet 3 § 1 punkten RB avgränsa yrkandet ytterligare eller via processledning påverka den sökande att förändra sin talan. Effektiviteten av förbud styrs även av vilka handlingar som anses rymmas inom förbudet vid mål om utdömande av vite. (Less)
Abstract
The number of cases of infringements of intellectual property rights has increased in recent years. An exclusive right, which cannot be protected, lacks value in many aspects. Access to efficient and effective sanctions is therefore essential for rightsholders. In 1994, a new sanction in the Swedish copyright-, design- and trademark act was adopted. The Swedish legislator intended to provide rightsholders with a procedural weapon that would support their primary interest, to rapidly put an end to the ongoing infringement. The sanction consists of an injunction prohibiting, on penalty of a fine, a party that commits, or contributes to, an act constituting an infringement from continuing that act.

This paper investigates whether... (More)
The number of cases of infringements of intellectual property rights has increased in recent years. An exclusive right, which cannot be protected, lacks value in many aspects. Access to efficient and effective sanctions is therefore essential for rightsholders. In 1994, a new sanction in the Swedish copyright-, design- and trademark act was adopted. The Swedish legislator intended to provide rightsholders with a procedural weapon that would support their primary interest, to rapidly put an end to the ongoing infringement. The sanction consists of an injunction prohibiting, on penalty of a fine, a party that commits, or contributes to, an act constituting an infringement from continuing that act.

This paper investigates whether injunctions, on penalty of a fine, which prohibits an infringer from continuing that act,-is an effective instrument to deter infringement of intellectual property rights. Initially, some procedural classifications of claims for injunctions on penalty of a fine are drawn. The Swedish government’s international and European commitments regarding sanctions for infringements are discussed. Furthermore, the Swedish legislator’s intentions in introducing injunctions on penalty of a fine against infringement in intellectual property rights are analysed. The right to litigate in cases involving injunctions on penalty of a fine, as well as situations in which those injunctions can be issued are analysed. Finally, a closer look is taken at the constituent elements of a claim as well as a judgment regarding an injunction on a penalty of a fine. Those elements are: I) the person designated by the injunction, II) the object of the infringement, III) the prohibited actions, IV) the amount of the fine, V) the scope in time and VI) the scope in room.

The following are the conclusions reached in this paper. According to Swedish law, rightsholders neither need to prove subjective coverage of infringers nor bring evidence about damages caused by the infringement in cases of injunctions on penalty of a fine. This results in more efficient litigation, and an increase in the likelihood that rightsholders could obtain a prohibition. Amendments in the Swedish regulations regarding injunctions on penalty of a fine, necessitated by the legislature of the EU, have led to an increase in the number of occasions that an injunction on penalty of a fine can be issued. As a result of the harmonization within the EU, the possibility of issuing extraterritorial injunctions has expanded.

At the same time, the scope of the injunction on penalty of a fine is limited by the Swedish legislator’s demands for clarity and precision, both regarding the claim of the plaintiff and the final judgment. In addition, the injunction must be proportional to the infringement. The demands can be justified under legal principles such as proportionality, the rule of law, and process-economic reasons. Furthermore, a prohibition that is too wide consumes the possibility of bringing criminal procedure against the defendant in the future.

Equally crucial for the efficiency of the injunction on penalty of a fine is how the plaintiff draws up his action. Irrespective of how expansive the opportunities the legislature gives rightsholders to put an end to infringements are, the infringing activity cannot be stopped unless the plaintiff forms his claim in an efficient way. Hence, the way that the plaintiff delimits the above listed elements of the claim are essential. Through official examination and material procedural instructions, the court influences the scope of the injunction. The efficiency of the injunction is also affected by the type of activity that is considered to go into the injunction, in cases of imposition of a fine. (Less)
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author
Wahlin, Sofia LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
How to Deter Infringements of Intellectual Property Rights: A Study of the Effectiveness of Injunctions Prohibiting Infringements
course
JURM01 20111
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Intellectual property law, immaterialrätt, swedish civil procedure law, civilprocessrätt, processrätt, civilrätt, förmögenhetsrätt, EU law, EU-rätt, private international law, internationell privaträtt, vitesförbud, vite, slutligt förbud, förbud, intrång, sanktion, immaterialrättsintrång, rättighetsinnehavare, intrångsgörare, immaterialrättighet, infringements, intellectual property rights, injunctions.
language
Swedish
id
2219817
date added to LUP
2011-12-02 09:41:57
date last changed
2011-12-02 09:41:57
@misc{2219817,
  abstract     = {The number of cases of infringements of intellectual property rights has increased in recent years. An exclusive right, which cannot be protected, lacks value in many aspects. Access to efficient and effective sanctions is therefore essential for rightsholders. In 1994, a new sanction in the Swedish copyright-, design- and trademark act was adopted. The Swedish legislator intended to provide rightsholders with a procedural weapon that would support their primary interest, to rapidly put an end to the ongoing infringement. The sanction consists of an injunction prohibiting, on penalty of a fine, a party that commits, or contributes to, an act constituting an infringement from continuing that act. 

This paper investigates whether injunctions, on penalty of a fine, which prohibits an infringer from continuing that act,-is an effective instrument to deter infringement of intellectual property rights. Initially, some procedural classifications of claims for injunctions on penalty of a fine are drawn. The Swedish government’s international and European commitments regarding sanctions for infringements are discussed. Furthermore, the Swedish legislator’s intentions in introducing injunctions on penalty of a fine against infringement in intellectual property rights are analysed. The right to litigate in cases involving injunctions on penalty of a fine, as well as situations in which those injunctions can be issued are analysed. Finally, a closer look is taken at the constituent elements of a claim as well as a judgment regarding an injunction on a penalty of a fine. Those elements are: I) the person designated by the injunction, II) the object of the infringement, III) the prohibited actions, IV) the amount of the fine, V) the scope in time and VI) the scope in room.

The following are the conclusions reached in this paper. According to Swedish law, rightsholders neither need to prove subjective coverage of infringers nor bring evidence about damages caused by the infringement in cases of injunctions on penalty of a fine. This results in more efficient litigation, and an increase in the likelihood that rightsholders could obtain a prohibition. Amendments in the Swedish regulations regarding injunctions on penalty of a fine, necessitated by the legislature of the EU, have led to an increase in the number of occasions that an injunction on penalty of a fine can be issued. As a result of the harmonization within the EU, the possibility of issuing extraterritorial injunctions has expanded. 

At the same time, the scope of the injunction on penalty of a fine is limited by the Swedish legislator’s demands for clarity and precision, both regarding the claim of the plaintiff and the final judgment.  In addition, the injunction must be proportional to the infringement. The demands can be justified under legal principles such as proportionality, the rule of law, and process-economic reasons. Furthermore, a prohibition that is too wide consumes the possibility of bringing criminal procedure against the defendant in the future. 

Equally crucial for the efficiency of the injunction on penalty of a fine is how the plaintiff draws up his action. Irrespective of how expansive the opportunities the legislature gives rightsholders to put an end to infringements are, the infringing activity cannot be stopped unless the plaintiff forms his claim in an efficient way. Hence, the way that the plaintiff delimits the above listed elements of the claim are essential. Through official examination and material procedural instructions, the court influences the scope of the injunction. The efficiency of the injunction is also affected by the type of activity that is considered to go into the injunction, in cases of imposition of a fine.},
  author       = {Wahlin, Sofia},
  keyword      = {Intellectual property law,immaterialrätt,swedish civil procedure law,civilprocessrätt,processrätt,civilrätt,förmögenhetsrätt,EU law,EU-rätt,private international law,internationell privaträtt,vitesförbud,vite,slutligt förbud,förbud,intrång,sanktion,immaterialrättsintrång,rättighetsinnehavare,intrångsgörare,immaterialrättighet,infringements,intellectual property rights,injunctions. 
},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Vitesförbud vid immaterialrättsintrång -en studie av sanktionsformens effektivitet},
  year         = {2011},
}