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Principalansvar - förutsättningar, omfattning och begränsningar av en arbetsgivares ansvar

Lindén, Johan LU (2012) JURM02 20112
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Vid skadeståndslagens tillkomst 1972 infördes ett lagstadgat principalansvar, en ansvarsgrund som tidigare endast haft stöd i rättspraxis och då varit kraftigt begränsad. Principalansvaret, som återfinns i 3 kap. 1 § SkL, innebär att arbetsgivare har ett skadeståndsrättsligt ansvar för skador dennes arbetstagare vållar annan i tjänsten. Denna uppsats syftar till att utreda omfattningen av principalansvaret, det vill säga hur långt arbetsgivarens ansvar sträcker sig.

Uppsatsen inleds med en kortare beskrivning av skadeståndsrättsliga grunder och principer. Därefter följer en utredning av skälen bakom ansvarets placering, förutsättningarna för principalansvarets tillämpning och omfattningen av arbetsgivarens ansvar. Under detta avsnitt... (More)
Vid skadeståndslagens tillkomst 1972 infördes ett lagstadgat principalansvar, en ansvarsgrund som tidigare endast haft stöd i rättspraxis och då varit kraftigt begränsad. Principalansvaret, som återfinns i 3 kap. 1 § SkL, innebär att arbetsgivare har ett skadeståndsrättsligt ansvar för skador dennes arbetstagare vållar annan i tjänsten. Denna uppsats syftar till att utreda omfattningen av principalansvaret, det vill säga hur långt arbetsgivarens ansvar sträcker sig.

Uppsatsen inleds med en kortare beskrivning av skadeståndsrättsliga grunder och principer. Därefter följer en utredning av skälen bakom ansvarets placering, förutsättningarna för principalansvarets tillämpning och omfattningen av arbetsgivarens ansvar. Under detta avsnitt undersöks bland annat innebörden och omfattning av arbetstagarbegreppet, arbetsgivarbegreppet och begreppet ”i tjänsten”. Slutligen följer en utredning av arbetsgivarens möjligheter att beviljas jämkning av skadeståndsbeloppet samt under vilka omständigheter arbetstagare själv ansvarar, helt eller delvis, för skador som har vållats av denne i tjänsten.

De främsta skälen bakom ansvarets placering är att arbetsgivare i regel har bäst möjlighet att, genom arbetsledning och kontroll, förebygga att skador uppstår. Arbetsgivare kan även, till skillnad från arbetstagare, teckna ansvarsförsäkring i verksamheten och därmed skydda sig mot skadeståndsanspråk. Samtidigt underlättar ansvarsförsäkringen för den skadelidande att få ersättning.

Principalansvaret omfattar enbart arbetstagare. Självständiga företagare inräknas inte. För att avgöra om skadevållaren är arbetstagare används det civilrättsliga arbetstagarbegreppet, vilket består av flertalet kriterier som talar för eller emot ett arbetstagarförhållande. För principalansvarets del har arbetstagarbegreppet utvidgats till att även omfatta medhjälpare likställda med arbetstagare, vilka för annans räkning utför arbete under omständigheter liknande dem som förekommer i ett anställningsförhållande.

Det krävs för att principalansvar ska föreligga att det finns ett funktionellt samband mellan den skadevållande handlingen och arbetstagarens tjänsteutövande. Det kan bland annat beaktas var och när skadan har vållats, men även vilka möjligheter arbetsgivaren hade att förhindra skadans uppkomst.

Sammantaget har arbetsgivare genom principalansvaret ett omfattande skadeståndsrättsligt ansvar för skador vållade i dennes verksamhet. För att arbetstagare själv ska ansvara för skador vållade i tjänsten krävs att det föreligger synnerliga skäl. Sådant ansvar inträder enbart i särskilda undantagsfall. (Less)
Abstract
When the Liability for Damages Act came into force in 1972, vicarious liability was laid down in law, a principle that previously had only been found in case law where it was severely restricted. Vicarious liability, which is found in chapter 3 § 1 in the Liability for Damages Act, means that an employer is liable for indemnity for damages that his or her employees have caused others during work. This thesis aims to investigate the scope of vicarious liability, which is how far an employer’s liability reaches.

The thesis starts with a brief description on fundaments and principles of the law of tort. Subsequently follows an investigation regarding the reasons behind the placement of liability, the conditions for the enforcement of... (More)
When the Liability for Damages Act came into force in 1972, vicarious liability was laid down in law, a principle that previously had only been found in case law where it was severely restricted. Vicarious liability, which is found in chapter 3 § 1 in the Liability for Damages Act, means that an employer is liable for indemnity for damages that his or her employees have caused others during work. This thesis aims to investigate the scope of vicarious liability, which is how far an employer’s liability reaches.

The thesis starts with a brief description on fundaments and principles of the law of tort. Subsequently follows an investigation regarding the reasons behind the placement of liability, the conditions for the enforcement of vicarious liability and the scope of an employer’s responsibility. This section examines for instance the meaning and scope of an employee, an employer and the concept “during work”. Finally, an investigation will be conducted regarding the possibility of an employer to be granted mitigation of damages and under what circumstances an employee is personally liable, whole or in part, for damages that he or she has caused during work.

The main reasons behind the placement of liability is that an employer usually has the best position to, through supervision and control, prevent damages from taking place. An employer can also, unlike an employee, take out a liability insurance in the business and thus protect itself from claim of damages. At the same time the liability insurance helps the injured party to receive compensation.

It is only employees who are covered by vicarious liability. Those who are self-employed are not covered. To determine whether the perpetrator is an employee, the civil law definition of the term “employee” is used, which consists of several criteria’s that speak for or against the existence of an employment relationship. For vicarious liability, the concept of an employee has been expanded to also include assistants equivalent to employers, who on behalf of another person have performed work at circumstances similar to those found in an employment relationship.

For vicarious liability to exist, it is required that there is a close connection between the injurious action and the employment of the employee. It can for instance consider at what place and during what time the damage was caused, but also what opportunities the employer had to prevent the injury.

Overall, employers are through vicarious liability extensively liable for indemnity for injuries that has been caused in his or her business. For an employee to be liable for injuries that has been caused during work, there need to be strong circumstances speaking for it. Such liability arises only in severe exceptional cases. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lindén, Johan LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Vicarious liability - the conditions, scope and limitations of an employer's responsibility
course
JURM02 20112
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Principalansvar, Förmögenhetsrätt, Civilrätt, Arbetsrätt, Skadeståndsrätt
language
Swedish
id
2293319
date added to LUP
2012-02-16 15:19:52
date last changed
2012-02-16 15:19:52
@misc{2293319,
  abstract     = {When the Liability for Damages Act came into force in 1972, vicarious liability was laid down in law, a principle that previously had only been found in case law where it was severely restricted. Vicarious liability, which is found in chapter 3 § 1 in the Liability for Damages Act, means that an employer is liable for indemnity for damages that his or her employees have caused others during work. This thesis aims to investigate the scope of vicarious liability, which is how far an employer’s liability reaches. 

The thesis starts with a brief description on fundaments and principles of the law of tort. Subsequently follows an investigation regarding the reasons behind the placement of liability, the conditions for the enforcement of vicarious liability and the scope of an employer’s responsibility. This section examines for instance the meaning and scope of an employee, an employer and the concept “during work”. Finally, an investigation will be conducted regarding the possibility of an employer to be granted mitigation of damages and under what circumstances an employee is personally liable, whole or in part, for damages that he or she has caused during work.

The main reasons behind the placement of liability is that an employer usually has the best position to, through supervision and control, prevent damages from taking place. An employer can also, unlike an employee, take out a liability insurance in the business and thus protect itself from claim of damages. At the same time the liability insurance helps the injured party to receive compensation. 

It is only employees who are covered by vicarious liability. Those who are self-employed are not covered. To determine whether the perpetrator is an employee, the civil law definition of the term “employee” is used, which consists of several criteria’s that speak for or against the existence of an employment relationship. For vicarious liability, the concept of an employee has been expanded to also include assistants equivalent to employers, who on behalf of another person have performed work at circumstances similar to those found in an employment relationship. 

For vicarious liability to exist, it is required that there is a close connection between the injurious action and the employment of the employee. It can for instance consider at what place and during what time the damage was caused, but also what opportunities the employer had to prevent the injury. 

Overall, employers are through vicarious liability extensively liable for indemnity for injuries that has been caused in his or her business. For an employee to be liable for injuries that has been caused during work, there need to be strong circumstances speaking for it. Such liability arises only in severe exceptional cases.},
  author       = {Lindén, Johan},
  keyword      = {Principalansvar,Förmögenhetsrätt,Civilrätt,Arbetsrätt,Skadeståndsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Principalansvar - förutsättningar, omfattning och begränsningar av en arbetsgivares ansvar},
  year         = {2012},
}