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Biogas policies, incentives and barriers, (a survey of the strategies of three European countries)

Engdahl, Kristina (2011)
Environmental and Energy Systems Studies
Abstract
Biogas production is a renewable energy technology of great potential. The produced gas can be used for heat production, combined heat and power production, vehicle fuel production or as replacement for natural gas. The technology brings about synergic benefits as it is a means of waste management and since the digested material is a valuable fertiliser.An increased production of biogas is advocated on EU level and in the renewable energy production strategies of most countries in Europe. Nevertheless, the development is rather slow and differences in the approach to the promotion of the technology can be noticed in the different countries.The aim of this study has been to investigate the development of the biogas sector in Europe. An... (More)
Biogas production is a renewable energy technology of great potential. The produced gas can be used for heat production, combined heat and power production, vehicle fuel production or as replacement for natural gas. The technology brings about synergic benefits as it is a means of waste management and since the digested material is a valuable fertiliser.An increased production of biogas is advocated on EU level and in the renewable energy production strategies of most countries in Europe. Nevertheless, the development is rather slow and differences in the approach to the promotion of the technology can be noticed in the different countries.The aim of this study has been to investigate the development of the biogas sector in Europe. An overview of the situation in the EU and in three chosen countries - Sweden, Germany and Spain - is presented, and the strategies for promotion are described and discussed. Barriers for the continued development of the sector are identified, and ways to overcome these barriers are suggested.The work has started off with a literature review after which interviews have been made with key persons in the countries. These interviews have been very valuable for the understanding of the situation. The amount of biogas produced and the means of production and utilisation of the gas varies significantly among the investigated countries. This is the result of different views of what the biogas should be used for, and of different types of policies chosen. Germany is the leading producer of biogas in Europe, contributing to almost half of the total amount produced in Europe. A high, stable electricity price guaranteed to the producer has lead to a boost of small-scale agricultural biogas production not seen in Sweden or Spain. In Sweden the production of biogas as vehicle fuel has instead been promoted, making Sweden a leading country in this field. In Spain, biogas production is still a relatively new technology why the sector is not yet developed to a great extent. Support measures and initiating actors exist but the current financial crisis limits the possibilities for development.Many actors and sectors of society need to be involved in biogas projects. The suitable type of technology or size of installation furthermore depend on the local conditions of the area chosen for the project. For this reason, different types of development are necessary in order to make use of the whole potential, which means a versatile set of policies and support measures is needed. Lessons should be learnt from both the successful implementation in countries and from examples of measures shown not to work. Transfer of know-how across the borders is essential for speeding up the development. (Less)
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author
Engdahl, Kristina
supervisor
organization
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Biogas, Europa, incitament, barriärer, fallstudier
report number
TFEM--11/5050
other publication id
LUTFD2/TFEM--11/5050--SE + (1-65)
language
English
id
4468127
date added to LUP
2014-06-18 13:40:33
date last changed
2014-06-18 13:40:33
@misc{4468127,
  abstract     = {Biogas production is a renewable energy technology of great potential. The produced gas can be used for heat production, combined heat and power production, vehicle fuel production or as replacement for natural gas. The technology brings about synergic benefits as it is a means of waste management and since the digested material is a valuable fertiliser.An increased production of biogas is advocated on EU level and in the renewable energy production strategies of most countries in Europe. Nevertheless, the development is rather slow and differences in the approach to the promotion of the technology can be noticed in the different countries.The aim of this study has been to investigate the development of the biogas sector in Europe. An overview of the situation in the EU and in three chosen countries - Sweden, Germany and Spain - is presented, and the strategies for promotion are described and discussed. Barriers for the continued development of the sector are identified, and ways to overcome these barriers are suggested.The work has started off with a literature review after which interviews have been made with key persons in the countries. These interviews have been very valuable for the understanding of the situation. The amount of biogas produced and the means of production and utilisation of the gas varies significantly among the investigated countries. This is the result of different views of what the biogas should be used for, and of different types of policies chosen. Germany is the leading producer of biogas in Europe, contributing to almost half of the total amount produced in Europe. A high, stable electricity price guaranteed to the producer has lead to a boost of small-scale agricultural biogas production not seen in Sweden or Spain. In Sweden the production of biogas as vehicle fuel has instead been promoted, making Sweden a leading country in this field. In Spain, biogas production is still a relatively new technology why the sector is not yet developed to a great extent. Support measures and initiating actors exist but the current financial crisis limits the possibilities for development.Many actors and sectors of society need to be involved in biogas projects. The suitable type of technology or size of installation furthermore depend on the local conditions of the area chosen for the project. For this reason, different types of development are necessary in order to make use of the whole potential, which means a versatile set of policies and support measures is needed. Lessons should be learnt from both the successful implementation in countries and from examples of measures shown not to work. Transfer of know-how across the borders is essential for speeding up the development.},
  author       = {Engdahl, Kristina},
  keyword      = {Biogas,Europa,incitament,barriärer,fallstudier},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Biogas policies, incentives and barriers, (a survey of the strategies of three European countries)},
  year         = {2011},
}