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Reduction of sodium in sausages by a colloidal approach

Kunlanun, Jittavanichprapha LU (2015) KLTM01 20151
Food Technology and Nutrition
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to achieve a deeper insight of the emulsifying, suspending, and gelling properties of the meat proteins and see the possibility to use them to produce reduced-salt emulsion-type sausages. Sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were extracted from pork (longissimus dorsi, LD). Firstly, their aggregation behaviors in different salt concentrations – namely, 0.15 M, 0.4 M, 0.6 M, and 0.8 M, at pH 5.5 and 5.8 were observed by the use of laser light scattering unit and light microscopy. The gelling ability of each sample was also tested by applying heat treatment at 72 °C for 17 min. Secondly, the emulsifying and suspending properties of the different protein solutions were examined at pH 5.8 by making the... (More)
The purpose of this research is to achieve a deeper insight of the emulsifying, suspending, and gelling properties of the meat proteins and see the possibility to use them to produce reduced-salt emulsion-type sausages. Sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were extracted from pork (longissimus dorsi, LD). Firstly, their aggregation behaviors in different salt concentrations – namely, 0.15 M, 0.4 M, 0.6 M, and 0.8 M, at pH 5.5 and 5.8 were observed by the use of laser light scattering unit and light microscopy. The gelling ability of each sample was also tested by applying heat treatment at 72 °C for 17 min. Secondly, the emulsifying and suspending properties of the different protein solutions were examined at pH 5.8 by making the emulsions and suspensions which composed of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% rapeseed oil or minced pork, respectively. Besides, all of the samples were heated to investigate the gelling properties. Finally, the combination of protein solution, oil, and minced meat with different ratio were evaluated. The result showed that the increase in salt concentration led to variation in aggregation size of sarcoplasmic proteins as well as swelling of myofibrillar proteins. When the protein solutions were blended with oil or meat and heated up, the gel-emulsions and gel-suspensions were able to form. Comparing at the same oil concentration, myofibrillar proteins resulted in stronger gel-emulsions than sarcoplasmic proteins. Nevertheless, the use of myofibrillar proteins in 0.15 M NaCl contributes to the weakest gel-emulsions in comparison with the use of those in other concentrations of NaCl. Similarly, myofibrillar proteins seemed to have higher potential to produce strong gel-suspensions, while sarcoplasmic proteins could not generate strong gel-suspensions if the meat contents were lower than 20%. Finally, the combination of oil, meat and protein solutions resulted in gel-emulsion-suspensions of which strengths were dependent on the oil and meat content as well as the NaCl concentration. Overall, the results suggested that it seems possible to reduce sodium in emulsion-type sausages by the use of extracted myofibrillar proteins in 0.4 – 0.8 M NaCl solution at pH 5.8 as they could aid in texture formation of sausages. (Less)
Popular Abstract
There has been a constant increase in consumer demand for low sodium products as a result of the findings from several researches indicating that excessive sodium consumption can cause high blood pressure which is a major risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Meat products are one of the major sources of sodium since sodium chloride, or known as table salt, is an essential ingredient that influences their texture, flavour and shelf life. As many important roles in meat products are performed by sodium chloride, developing low sodium meat products without sacrificing the product quality is not straightforward. In most cases, reduction of salt contributes to different quality aberrations of the meat products compared to those... (More)
There has been a constant increase in consumer demand for low sodium products as a result of the findings from several researches indicating that excessive sodium consumption can cause high blood pressure which is a major risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Meat products are one of the major sources of sodium since sodium chloride, or known as table salt, is an essential ingredient that influences their texture, flavour and shelf life. As many important roles in meat products are performed by sodium chloride, developing low sodium meat products without sacrificing the product quality is not straightforward. In most cases, reduction of salt contributes to different quality aberrations of the meat products compared to those with normal salt content. Regarding sausages, salt acts as a taste enhancer and also exert some antimicrobial activity. Moreover, another key function of salt in sausage is to solubilize the muscle proteins in meat and thus aid in their water and fat binding properties which results in a desirable gel texture upon cooking. This study aims to see the possibility to produce emulsion-type sausages, e.g. frankfurters, kochwurst, with reduced salt content by using different meat protein extracts to aid in the formation of gel-emulsion-suspension, which a sausage consist of. “Sarcoplasmic proteins”, which mainly consist of most enzymes, and “myofibrillar proteins”, which essentially comprise of myosin and actin that play a major role in muscle contraction, were extracted from pork. Their aggregation, emulsifying, suspending, and gelling properties were investigated. The aggregation behavior of the proteins was observed by dispersing them in salt (sodium chloride) solutions between the concentration of 0.15 and 0.8 mole/liter at pH 5.5 and 5.8. The emulsifying ability of these proteins, i.e. the capability to facilitate and stabilize the dispersion of oil droplets into water phase, was examined by mixing oil, water and protein extracts at different ratio to make emulsions. This method was also applied to evaluate the suspending ability, which is described as the capability to keep solid particles suspended in the medium, by replacing oil with minced meat. For the gelling ability, it was tested by heating the emulsions and suspensions and see whether they can form strong gels. The result showed that the increase in salt concentration led to aggregation of sarcoplasmic proteins as well as swelling of myofibrillar proteins. When the protein extracts were blended with oil or meat and heated up, the gel-emulsions and gel-suspensions were able to form. Varied types of protein, salt concentrations, oil, and meat contents had different impacts on gel properties. Myofibrillar proteins contributed to stronger gel-emulsions and gel-suspensions than sarcoplasmic proteins did. When heat was applied to the combinations of oil, meat, and protein solutions, gel-emulsion- suspensions were formed. Their strengths were dependent on oil and meat content as well as salt concentration. By the use of extracted myofibrillar proteins in 0.4 – 0.8 mole/liter salt solutions at pH 5.8, good gel-emulsion-suspensions which are necessary for sausage texture were obtained. Overall, the concept of using meat protein extracts seems possible to be applied in sausage making in order to reduce sodium in emulsion-type sausages. However, in order to achieve a proper sausage texture and consumer acceptance, further research is necessary to investigate the optimal oil and meat content. (Less)
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author
Kunlanun, Jittavanichprapha LU
supervisor
organization
course
KLTM01 20151
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
food engineering, livsmedelsteknik, salt, sodium, sausage
language
English
id
7373772
date added to LUP
2015-06-23 15:26:20
date last changed
2015-06-23 15:26:20
@misc{7373772,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this research is to achieve a deeper insight of the emulsifying, suspending, and gelling properties of the meat proteins and see the possibility to use them to produce reduced-salt emulsion-type sausages. Sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were extracted from pork (longissimus dorsi, LD). Firstly, their aggregation behaviors in different salt concentrations – namely, 0.15 M, 0.4 M, 0.6 M, and 0.8 M, at pH 5.5 and 5.8 were observed by the use of laser light scattering unit and light microscopy. The gelling ability of each sample was also tested by applying heat treatment at 72 °C for 17 min. Secondly, the emulsifying and suspending properties of the different protein solutions were examined at pH 5.8 by making the emulsions and suspensions which composed of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% rapeseed oil or minced pork, respectively. Besides, all of the samples were heated to investigate the gelling properties. Finally, the combination of protein solution, oil, and minced meat with different ratio were evaluated. The result showed that the increase in salt concentration led to variation in aggregation size of sarcoplasmic proteins as well as swelling of myofibrillar proteins. When the protein solutions were blended with oil or meat and heated up, the gel-emulsions and gel-suspensions were able to form. Comparing at the same oil concentration, myofibrillar proteins resulted in stronger gel-emulsions than sarcoplasmic proteins. Nevertheless, the use of myofibrillar proteins in 0.15 M NaCl contributes to the weakest gel-emulsions in comparison with the use of those in other concentrations of NaCl. Similarly, myofibrillar proteins seemed to have higher potential to produce strong gel-suspensions, while sarcoplasmic proteins could not generate strong gel-suspensions if the meat contents were lower than 20%. Finally, the combination of oil, meat and protein solutions resulted in gel-emulsion-suspensions of which strengths were dependent on the oil and meat content as well as the NaCl concentration. Overall, the results suggested that it seems possible to reduce sodium in emulsion-type sausages by the use of extracted myofibrillar proteins in 0.4 – 0.8 M NaCl solution at pH 5.8 as they could aid in texture formation of sausages.},
  author       = {Kunlanun, Jittavanichprapha},
  keyword      = {food engineering,livsmedelsteknik,salt,sodium,sausage},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Reduction of sodium in sausages by a colloidal approach},
  year         = {2015},
}