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The behavior of meat emulsions and suspensions with added salt and polyphosphates and their substitution with vegetables and carbohydrates

Papaioannou, Revekka LU (2017) KLTM01 20161
Food Technology and Nutrition (M.Sc.)
Abstract
The aim of this project is to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of sausage making in order to further investigate whether all these emulsifying, gelling, and textural properties can be retained when part of the compounds are substituted with vegetables and carbohydrates. To achieve this, the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were extracted from pork shank and were further examined regarding solubility, aggregation and gelling behavior, in different salt concentrations and with or without polyphosphates. Secondly, oil emulsions and suspensions with carrot, parsnip, starch or meat were prepared and the emulsifying and gelling properties were investigated. The results showed that the increase of salt concentration contributed to the... (More)
The aim of this project is to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of sausage making in order to further investigate whether all these emulsifying, gelling, and textural properties can be retained when part of the compounds are substituted with vegetables and carbohydrates. To achieve this, the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were extracted from pork shank and were further examined regarding solubility, aggregation and gelling behavior, in different salt concentrations and with or without polyphosphates. Secondly, oil emulsions and suspensions with carrot, parsnip, starch or meat were prepared and the emulsifying and gelling properties were investigated. The results showed that the increase of salt concentration contributed to the swelling of the myofibrillar proteins and polyphosphate addition facilitated it. When the protein solutions were blended with rapeseed oil, the sarcoplasmic proteins acted as good emulsifiers forming stable emulsions overtime, whereas myofibrillar proteins acted as good gel formers, forming strong heat-induced gels. The myofibrillar suspensions with meat, carrot, parsnip and starch were able to form gels after heating, while none of the sarcoplasmic suspensions did. Rapeseed oil, meat and starch (swollen) can fill the volume of the network adequately and increase the gel strength. Carrot is a good alternative as a substitute, forming stable gels in terms of strength, while parsnip disturbs the network of myofibrillar proteins and thus is not a suitable choice for substituting meat or fat. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Making processed meat healthier?
The World Health Organization has classified processed and smoked meat products as carcinogens, associating the consumption of products like sausage, bacon and hot dogs (frankfurters) with colon cancer. Processed meat products are also rich in fat and salt content, that are additional negative factors for various diseases, such as heart diseases and hypertension. The American Cancer Society has recommended a diet with limited consumption of processed meat and high in vegetables, whole grains and fruits. Thus, manufacturing healthier meat products is a big challenge for the food scientists.
The aim of this study was to incorporate healthier components, such as fibers, into meat products, by substituting... (More)
Making processed meat healthier?
The World Health Organization has classified processed and smoked meat products as carcinogens, associating the consumption of products like sausage, bacon and hot dogs (frankfurters) with colon cancer. Processed meat products are also rich in fat and salt content, that are additional negative factors for various diseases, such as heart diseases and hypertension. The American Cancer Society has recommended a diet with limited consumption of processed meat and high in vegetables, whole grains and fruits. Thus, manufacturing healthier meat products is a big challenge for the food scientists.
The aim of this study was to incorporate healthier components, such as fibers, into meat products, by substituting part of the meat, without compromising the texture. Texture is a very significant quality and acceptance criterion for these kinds of products. One of the major attributes that leads to the successful manufacturing of this type of products is the ability of the of meat proteins to form gels. During this study, we tried to understand in depth the fundamental characteristics of the meat proteins and the mechanism of action of the gel formation. To achieve this, two kinds of proteins, namely sarcoplasmic and myofibrilar, were extracted sarcoplasmic from pork meat and heat was applied to obtain gels.
An important quality characteristic of the formed gels is its strength. Thus, the gel strength of the heated gels, to simulate the manufacturing process, was measured when comminuted meat was added into the myofibrillar solutions in different concentrations and compared with the gel strength of the samples in which the meat was replaced with carrot, parsnip, or potato starch. The outcome of this study was that myofibrillar proteins are excellent gel formers. Meat and starch can fill the volume of the network adequately and increase the gel strength. Carrot is a good alternative as a substitute, forming stable gels in terms of strength, while parsnip disturbs the network of myofibrillar proteins and thus is not a suitable choice for substituting meat or fat. In a nutshell, the concept of substituting meat with vegetables and carbohydrates seems possible to be applied in sausage making in order to reduce the amount of meat in emulsion-type sausages. However, in order to achieve a proper sausage texture and consumer acceptance, further research is necessary to investigate the optimal combinations. (Less)
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author
Papaioannou, Revekka LU
supervisor
organization
course
KLTM01 20161
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
salt, polyphosphates, gelation, sarcoplasmic, Meat proteins, myofibrillar, parsnip, carrot, potato starch, food engineering, livsmedelsteknik
language
English
id
8901924
date added to LUP
2017-02-08 10:00:56
date last changed
2017-02-08 10:00:56
@misc{8901924,
  abstract     = {The aim of this project is to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of sausage making in order to further investigate whether all these emulsifying, gelling, and textural properties can be retained when part of the compounds are substituted with vegetables and carbohydrates. To achieve this, the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were extracted from pork shank and were further examined regarding solubility, aggregation and gelling behavior, in different salt concentrations and with or without polyphosphates. Secondly, oil emulsions and suspensions with carrot, parsnip, starch or meat were prepared and the emulsifying and gelling properties were investigated. The results showed that the increase of salt concentration contributed to the swelling of the myofibrillar proteins and polyphosphate addition facilitated it. When the protein solutions were blended with rapeseed oil, the sarcoplasmic proteins acted as good emulsifiers forming stable emulsions overtime, whereas myofibrillar proteins acted as good gel formers, forming strong heat-induced gels. The myofibrillar suspensions with meat, carrot, parsnip and starch were able to form gels after heating, while none of the sarcoplasmic suspensions did. Rapeseed oil, meat and starch (swollen) can fill the volume of the network adequately and increase the gel strength. Carrot is a good alternative as a substitute, forming stable gels in terms of strength, while parsnip disturbs the network of myofibrillar proteins and thus is not a suitable choice for substituting meat or fat.},
  author       = {Papaioannou, Revekka},
  keyword      = {salt,polyphosphates,gelation,sarcoplasmic,Meat proteins,myofibrillar,parsnip,carrot,potato starch,food engineering,livsmedelsteknik},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {The behavior of meat emulsions and suspensions with added salt and polyphosphates and their substitution with vegetables and carbohydrates},
  year         = {2017},
}