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Implementation and Benchmarking of a Crypto Processor for a NB-IoT SoC Platform

Fuhrmann, Sébastien LU and Cavo, Luis LU (2018) EITM02 20171
Department of Electrical and Information Technology
Abstract
The goal of this Master’s Thesis is to investigate the implementation of cryptographic algorithms for IoT and how these encryption systems can be integrated in a NarrowBand IoT platform. Following 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specifications, the Evolved Packet System (EPS) Encryption Algorithms (EEA) and EPS Integrity Algorithms (EIA) have been implemented and tested. The latter are based on three different ciphering algorithms, used as keystream generators: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), SNOW 3G and ZUC. These algorithms are used in Long Term Evolution (LTE) terminals to perform user data confidentiality and integrity protection.

In the first place, a thorough study of the algorithms has been conducted. Then, we have... (More)
The goal of this Master’s Thesis is to investigate the implementation of cryptographic algorithms for IoT and how these encryption systems can be integrated in a NarrowBand IoT platform. Following 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specifications, the Evolved Packet System (EPS) Encryption Algorithms (EEA) and EPS Integrity Algorithms (EIA) have been implemented and tested. The latter are based on three different ciphering algorithms, used as keystream generators: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), SNOW 3G and ZUC. These algorithms are used in Long Term Evolution (LTE) terminals to perform user data confidentiality and integrity protection.

In the first place, a thorough study of the algorithms has been conducted. Then, we have used Matlab to generate a reference model of the algorithms and the High-Level Synthesis (HLS) design flow to generate the Register-Transfer Level (RTL) description from algorithmic descriptions in C++. The keystream generation and integrity blocks have been tested at RTL level. The confidentiality block has been described along with the control, datapath and interface block at a RTL level using System C language. The hardware blocks have been integrated into a processor capable of performing hardware confidentiality and integrity protection: the crypto processor. This Intellectual Property (IP) has been integrated and tested in a cycle accurate virtual platform. The outcome of this Master’s Thesis is a crypto processor capable of performing the proposed confidentiality and integrity algorithms under request. (Less)
Popular Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the big revolutions that our society is expected to go through in the near future. This represents the inter-connection of devices, sensors, controllers, and any items, refereed as things, through a network that enables machine-to-machine communication. The number of connected devices will greatly increase. The applications taking advantage of IoT will enable to develop a great amount of technologies such as smart homes, smart cities and intelligent transportation. The possibilities allowed are huge and not yet fully explored.

Picture yourself in the near future having a nice dinner with some friends. Then, you suddenly recall that your parking ticket expires in five minutes and unfortunately your... (More)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the big revolutions that our society is expected to go through in the near future. This represents the inter-connection of devices, sensors, controllers, and any items, refereed as things, through a network that enables machine-to-machine communication. The number of connected devices will greatly increase. The applications taking advantage of IoT will enable to develop a great amount of technologies such as smart homes, smart cities and intelligent transportation. The possibilities allowed are huge and not yet fully explored.

Picture yourself in the near future having a nice dinner with some friends. Then, you suddenly recall that your parking ticket expires in five minutes and unfortunately your car is parked some blocks away. You are having a good time and feel lazy to walk all the way to where you parked your car to pay for a time extension. Luckily enough, the parking meter is part of the IoT network and allows you, with the recently installed new application in your smart-phone, to pay this bill from anywhere you are. This payment will be sent to the parking meter and
your time will be extended. Problem solved, right?

Well, the risk comes when you perform your payment, not knowing that your "worst enemy" has interceded this communication and is able to alter your transaction. Perhaps, this individual decides to cancel your payment and you will have to pay a fine. Or even worse, this person steals your banking details and uses your money to take the vacations you’ve always wanted.

There are many examples in our everyday life where we expose our personal information. With an increasing number of devices existing and using wireless communications without the action of an human, the security is a key aspect of IoT. This Master’s Thesis addresses the need to cover these security breaches in a world where an increasing amount of devices are communicating with each other. With the expansion of IoT where billions of devices will be connected wirelessly, our data will be widely spread over the air. The user will not be able
to protect their sensible data without these securing capabilities. Therefore, different security algorithms used in today’s and tomorrow’s wireless technologies have been implemented on a chip to secure the communication. The confidentiality and integrity algorithms aim to solve the two aspects of the problem: protect the secrecy of banking details and prevent the alteration of the communication’s information.

In this Master’s Thesis we have developed a hardware processor for securing data during a wireless communication, specifically designed for IoT applications. The developed system is realized with minimal area and power in mind, so that they can be fitted even in the smallest devices. We have compared many different hardware architectures, and after exploring many possible implementations, we have implemented the security algorithms on a hardware platform.

We believe the content of this Thesis work is of great interest to anybody interested in hardware security applied to the IoT field. Furthermore, due to the processes and methodology used in this work, it will also be of interest to people who want to know more about how higher level programming languages can be used to describe such a specialized circuit, like one performing security algorithms. Finally, people interested in hardware and software co-simulation will find in this project a good example of the utilization of such system modeling technique. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Fuhrmann, Sébastien LU and Cavo, Luis LU
supervisor
organization
course
EITM02 20171
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
3GPP, IoT, HLS, security, cryptography, AES, SNOW, ZUC, hardware, ASIC, confidentiality, integrity, cipher
report number
LU/LTH-EIT 2018-649
language
English
id
8935848
date added to LUP
2018-06-25 08:20:59
date last changed
2018-06-25 08:20:59
@misc{8935848,
  abstract     = {The goal of this Master’s Thesis is to investigate the implementation of cryptographic algorithms for IoT and how these encryption systems can be integrated in a NarrowBand IoT platform. Following 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specifications, the Evolved Packet System (EPS) Encryption Algorithms (EEA) and EPS Integrity Algorithms (EIA) have been implemented and tested. The latter are based on three different ciphering algorithms, used as keystream generators: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), SNOW 3G and ZUC. These algorithms are used in Long Term Evolution (LTE) terminals to perform user data confidentiality and integrity protection.

In the first place, a thorough study of the algorithms has been conducted. Then, we have used Matlab to generate a reference model of the algorithms and the High-Level Synthesis (HLS) design flow to generate the Register-Transfer Level (RTL) description from algorithmic descriptions in C++. The keystream generation and integrity blocks have been tested at RTL level. The confidentiality block has been described along with the control, datapath and interface block at a RTL level using System C language. The hardware blocks have been integrated into a processor capable of performing hardware confidentiality and integrity protection: the crypto processor. This Intellectual Property (IP) has been integrated and tested in a cycle accurate virtual platform. The outcome of this Master’s Thesis is a crypto processor capable of performing the proposed confidentiality and integrity algorithms under request.},
  author       = {Fuhrmann, Sébastien and Cavo, Luis},
  keyword      = {3GPP,IoT,HLS,security,cryptography,AES,SNOW,ZUC,hardware,ASIC,confidentiality,integrity,cipher},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Implementation and Benchmarking of a Crypto Processor for a NB-IoT SoC Platform},
  year         = {2018},
}