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Phase Locked Loops in Fully Integrated NB-IoT Transceivers

Waks, Adam LU (2018) EITM01 20181
Department of Electrical and Information Technology
Abstract
This thesis investigates how to fulfill the Narrow Band - Internet of Things (NB-IoT) specification for a fully integrated transceiver in the phase locked loop's (PLL) perspective. Designing a fully integrated transceiver, integrating a power amplifier (PA) is challenging as it leads to frequency pulling of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) in the PLL, deteriorating the performance. By increasing the bandwidth of the PLL, the frequency pulling can be suppressed, especially when the bandwidth is increased to at least twice the baseband bandwidth. The frequency pulling can be further suppressed by designing the PA balun in such a way that a common mode current cancels as well as designing the VCO inductor in an eight shape fashion,... (More)
This thesis investigates how to fulfill the Narrow Band - Internet of Things (NB-IoT) specification for a fully integrated transceiver in the phase locked loop's (PLL) perspective. Designing a fully integrated transceiver, integrating a power amplifier (PA) is challenging as it leads to frequency pulling of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) in the PLL, deteriorating the performance. By increasing the bandwidth of the PLL, the frequency pulling can be suppressed, especially when the bandwidth is increased to at least twice the baseband bandwidth. The frequency pulling can be further suppressed by designing the PA balun in such a way that a common mode current cancels as well as designing the VCO inductor in an eight shape fashion, reducing the coupling from balun to inductor. The NB-IoT specification is extracted from 3GPP and translated to a phase noise requirement for the PLL and a parameterization of the PLL is made to ease the evaluation of the phase noise performance. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Internet of Things is a concept of connecting everything to the internet, "anything that can be connected, will be connected". This does not only include electronic devices but humans as well, the connection being human to human, human to device and device to device. The world is constantly getting more and more connected. Everything from industries to fridges are getting connected. In agriculture, smart devices to monitor the humidity of the soil and the temperature of the air could reduce the amount of water used and improve the growing conditions for the crops. Using sensors to collect data, whole cities can be optimized in order to run more efficiently. One example being roads equipped with sensors collecting data from the surroundings... (More)
Internet of Things is a concept of connecting everything to the internet, "anything that can be connected, will be connected". This does not only include electronic devices but humans as well, the connection being human to human, human to device and device to device. The world is constantly getting more and more connected. Everything from industries to fridges are getting connected. In agriculture, smart devices to monitor the humidity of the soil and the temperature of the air could reduce the amount of water used and improve the growing conditions for the crops. Using sensors to collect data, whole cities can be optimized in order to run more efficiently. One example being roads equipped with sensors collecting data from the surroundings to aid autonomous vehicles in order to make the infrastructure more efficient. According to Internet of Things forecast there will be 30 billion connected devices by 2022. This massive growth of smart devices has led to an increased request for small, cheap and energy efficient communication solutions.

In June 2016 the specification for Narrow Band Internet of Things was completed. The demands placed on developers are to implement devices with low power consumption, low maintenance, low installation complexity and low cost. Optimization of the transceiver can greatly reduce the complexity of installation, power consumption and area, and hence the cost; leading to a competitive edge. With higher level of integration comes higher demands on the developers. This thesis handles the hazards with integrating a power amplifier on the same chip as the transceiver in a phase locked loops perspective and presents some design tricks to mitigate these hazards while still accomplishing the Narrow Band Internet of Things specifications. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Waks, Adam LU
supervisor
organization
course
EITM01 20181
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Phase locked loops, Narrow Band Internet of Things, Frequency pulling, Balun, Inductor
report number
LU/LTH-EIT 2018-629
language
English
id
8946215
date added to LUP
2018-06-12 15:06:04
date last changed
2018-06-12 15:06:04
@misc{8946215,
  abstract     = {This thesis investigates how to fulfill the Narrow Band - Internet of Things (NB-IoT) specification for a fully integrated transceiver in the phase locked loop's (PLL) perspective. Designing a fully integrated transceiver, integrating a power amplifier (PA) is challenging as it leads to frequency pulling of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) in the PLL, deteriorating the performance. By increasing the bandwidth of the PLL, the frequency pulling can be suppressed, especially when the bandwidth is increased to at least twice the baseband bandwidth. The frequency pulling can be further suppressed by designing the PA balun in such a way that a common mode current cancels as well as designing the VCO inductor in an eight shape fashion, reducing the coupling from balun to inductor. The NB-IoT specification is extracted from 3GPP and translated to a phase noise requirement for the PLL and a parameterization of the PLL is made to ease the evaluation of the phase noise performance.},
  author       = {Waks, Adam},
  keyword      = {Phase locked loops,Narrow Band Internet of Things,Frequency pulling,Balun,Inductor},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Phase Locked Loops in Fully Integrated NB-IoT Transceivers},
  year         = {2018},
}