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Mapping of waste in the ham production process and possible solutions

Lindgren Hermansson, Ebba LU (2018) In Mapping of waste in the ham production process and possible solutions KLTM05 20181
Food Technology and Nutrition (M.Sc.)
Abstract
Waste is an issue in the food industry which impacts both the economy and the environment negatively. Atria is a food company aiming to reduce the waste. This report investigates the waste, its origin, and causes in the ham production process. The aim of this report is to identify waste and possible solutions.
In this report both qualitative data and quantitative data were collected and analysed. Initially a literature study was made to map the process and potential causes of waste. Interviews and observations were carried out to map the issues present at Atria. Quantitative analysis was made to see if the qualitative information could be confirmed and to further describe it in detail.
The production of ham is a complex process... (More)
Waste is an issue in the food industry which impacts both the economy and the environment negatively. Atria is a food company aiming to reduce the waste. This report investigates the waste, its origin, and causes in the ham production process. The aim of this report is to identify waste and possible solutions.
In this report both qualitative data and quantitative data were collected and analysed. Initially a literature study was made to map the process and potential causes of waste. Interviews and observations were carried out to map the issues present at Atria. Quantitative analysis was made to see if the qualitative information could be confirmed and to further describe it in detail.
The production of ham is a complex process containing several process steps. At first meat is cut followed by injection of brine. Thereafter the meat is tenderized for bigger area (beneficial in the stuffing step) and better brine uptake in the subsequent tumbling. After the meat has been tumbled for extraction of proteins, binding the muscles together, the meat is stuffed into logs and heated. The logs are intensively cooled and finally sliced and packaged after a couple of days in cold storage.
In ham production waste occurs in different shapes and at different process steps. There are slicing losses, water losses and raw material losses and waste occurs throughout the whole process. The water losses and slicing losses can be seen as the biggest issues. Waste can be caused by insufficient process steps. The insufficiency in the process steps can be caused by different parameters such as temperature deviations, lack of maintenance and knowledge and length of tumbling.
Another cause of waste is variations in raw material. Pale soft and exudative meat and meat with low pH is a problem in the pork industry causing excessive water loss and dry meat and thereby also slicing losses. Other factors affecting the raw material is freezing, thawing and storage which all are issues at Atria in varying degrees.
By quantifying the causes, the resources in minimizing the waste can be allocated where it is most efficient. Except for slicing losses, it is hard to quantify the waste at Atria today. The recipe changes made in 2017, reduction of sodium lactate and phosphate was proven to have a significant effect on slicing losses which can be connected to the water binding effects and the effect on extraction of proteins necessary for binding.
In order to evaluate possible solutions and the impact of raw material variations on the amount of waste an experiment was carried out. A variant of ΔT-cooking compared to regular cooking in groups with low pH meat and high pH meat were compared. ΔT-cooking together with regular cooking was not proven to be minimizing cooking losses or slicing losses. The slicing losses were higher for meat with low pH. However, the experiment was significantly affected by lead times.
Other solutions in order to minimize waste identified were connected to Lean manufacturing which is a method for minimizing wasteful activities and creating value. Approaches which can be applied at Atria are concerning incorporation of the employees, maintenance activities and strategies to minimize lead times. The process can be optimised as well by e.g. injecting and tenderizing of muscles separately or better recollection and reuse of drip. Better reception controls and supplier controls can lead to a better mapping and control of the incoming raw material. At last, an update of routines for better quantification before implementing the new business system M3 will facilitate future mapping of waste and thereby identification of main issues. (Less)
Popular Abstract (Swedish)
Svinn som uppstår vid produktion av skinka och åtgärder för en hållbar produktion

Produktion av skinka är en komplex process med många steg och inverkande parametrar. Svinn uppstår mer eller mindre i samtliga processteg i olika former: blodliknande vätska, bortsorterade skivor på grund av torrt eller håligt kött, förångad vätska med mera. Det finns en stor potential för minskat svinn men det kräver krafttag ifrån inblandade i olika delar av branschen. Fläskköttets kvalitet måste förbättras genom bättre uppfödnings- och slaktförhållanden samtidigt som industrin måste effektiviseras. Detta för att både kunna ta höjd för köttets varierande kvalitet och för att ta till vara på så mycket som möjligt. Genom att kvantifiera processvinnet i... (More)
Svinn som uppstår vid produktion av skinka och åtgärder för en hållbar produktion

Produktion av skinka är en komplex process med många steg och inverkande parametrar. Svinn uppstår mer eller mindre i samtliga processteg i olika former: blodliknande vätska, bortsorterade skivor på grund av torrt eller håligt kött, förångad vätska med mera. Det finns en stor potential för minskat svinn men det kräver krafttag ifrån inblandade i olika delar av branschen. Fläskköttets kvalitet måste förbättras genom bättre uppfödnings- och slaktförhållanden samtidigt som industrin måste effektiviseras. Detta för att både kunna ta höjd för köttets varierande kvalitet och för att ta till vara på så mycket som möjligt. Genom att kvantifiera processvinnet i industrin och identifiera de stora problemen i en process kan stora delar av svinnet minskas. Detta genom att åtgärda just de problem en specifik process eller anläggning lider mest utav.

Målet med detta arbete var att undersöka Atrias produktion av skinka för att kartlägga var svinn uppstår och varför. Matsvinn är ett stort problem inom livsmedelsindustrin som påverkar både ekonomin och miljön. Kött är den typ av livsmedel som påverkar miljön mest och en effektiv produktion är att föredra.

Redan vid uppfödning och slakt uppstår problem som får konsekvenser i industrin i form av svinn. Detta på grund av snabba pH-sänkningar eller pH som sjunker för lågt. Detta ger upphov till torrt, blekt och vattenavsöndrande kött. Dessa problem kan uppstå både på grund av genetiska defekter hos grisar, stressade djur före slakt eller fodret. Genom pH-mätningar och färgmätningar visade att dålig kvalitet på råvaran är ett vanligt förekommande problem hos Atria och att kvaliteten varierar mellan olika leverantörer.

Svinn uppstår dock inte enbart på grund av köttets kvalitet utan också under produktionen av skinka på grund av ineffektiva processer. Dessutom kan mycket av problemen orsakade på grund av köttkvaliteten minskas genom en effektiviserad process. Genom observationer och intervjuer med personal på Atria kunde exempelvis slutsatsen dras att mycket av vätskan i köttet förlorad under processteg som lagring, frysning och värmebehandling vilket i sin tur ger upphov till ökat skivspill på grund av torra skivor. Genom att utforma koknings- och rökningsmetoder som är så skonsamma mot köttet som möjligt kan dessa typer av svinn minskas. Detta genom att t.ex. se till att maxtemperaturer inte överstigs i värmebehandlingsprogram. Minskat svinn kan också nås genom att uppnå en mer löpande produktion där nedfrysning av kött och förvaring undviks.

Ytterligare ett problem som industrin står inför är trenden med minskade tillsatser och minskat saltinnehåll i livsmedel. Många tillsatser används just för att öka utbytet och minska svinn. Exempelvis används natriumlaktat och fosfat bland annat för dess vattenbindande förmåga vid produktion av skinka. Efter att ha jämfört skivspill med perioder före och efter halvering av båda ingredienserna kunde slutsatsen dras receptförändringarna bidragit till ökat svinn. Genom att exempelvis använda alternativa ingredienser, exempelvis kaliumlaktat istället för natriumlaktat, kan dock vissa av dessa problem minska.

Dessutom finns det mycket utrymme för investeringar i ny teknik och utrustning för att minska svinnet. Mycket av den utrustning som används i industrin idag har använts i decennier. Exempelvis kan håligheter i skinkskivor minskas med moderna vakuumkammare och vätska kan samlas upp och återvinnas till en högre grad än vad det görs idag.

’Det finns många åtgärder att vidta för att minska svinnet i dagens köttindustri. För att nå resultat måste mängden svinn kvantifieras och bli överskådlig så att de stora problemen kan åtgärdas oavsett om det gäller köttkvalitetsproblematik, specifika processteg eller receptens formulering. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lindgren Hermansson, Ebba LU
supervisor
organization
course
KLTM05 20181
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Food waste, Ham, Pork, Drip loss, Lean
publication/series
Mapping of waste in the ham production process and possible solutions
language
English
id
8957300
date added to LUP
2018-09-12 11:02:37
date last changed
2018-09-12 11:02:37
@misc{8957300,
  abstract     = {Waste is an issue in the food industry which impacts both the economy and the environment negatively. Atria is a food company aiming to reduce the waste. This report investigates the waste, its origin, and causes in the ham production process. The aim of this report is to identify waste and possible solutions. 
In this report both qualitative data and quantitative data were collected and analysed. Initially a literature study was made to map the process and potential causes of waste. Interviews and observations were carried out to map the issues present at Atria. Quantitative analysis was made to see if the qualitative information could be confirmed and to further describe it in detail. 
The production of ham is a complex process containing several process steps. At first meat is cut followed by injection of brine. Thereafter the meat is tenderized for bigger area (beneficial in the stuffing step) and better brine uptake in the subsequent tumbling. After the meat has been tumbled for extraction of proteins, binding the muscles together, the meat is stuffed into logs and heated. The logs are intensively cooled and finally sliced and packaged after a couple of days in cold storage. 
In ham production waste occurs in different shapes and at different process steps. There are slicing losses, water losses and raw material losses and waste occurs throughout the whole process. The water losses and slicing losses can be seen as the biggest issues. Waste can be caused by insufficient process steps. The insufficiency in the process steps can be caused by different parameters such as temperature deviations, lack of maintenance and knowledge and length of tumbling. 
Another cause of waste is variations in raw material. Pale soft and exudative meat and meat with low pH is a problem in the pork industry causing excessive water loss and dry meat and thereby also slicing losses. Other factors affecting the raw material is freezing, thawing and storage which all are issues at Atria in varying degrees. 
By quantifying the causes, the resources in minimizing the waste can be allocated where it is most efficient. Except for slicing losses, it is hard to quantify the waste at Atria today. The recipe changes made in 2017, reduction of sodium lactate and phosphate was proven to have a significant effect on slicing losses which can be connected to the water binding effects and the effect on extraction of proteins necessary for binding. 
In order to evaluate possible solutions and the impact of raw material variations on the amount of waste an experiment was carried out. A variant of ΔT-cooking compared to regular cooking in groups with low pH meat and high pH meat were compared. ΔT-cooking together with regular cooking was not proven to be minimizing cooking losses or slicing losses. The slicing losses were higher for meat with low pH. However, the experiment was significantly affected by lead times. 
Other solutions in order to minimize waste identified were connected to Lean manufacturing which is a method for minimizing wasteful activities and creating value. Approaches which can be applied at Atria are concerning incorporation of the employees, maintenance activities and strategies to minimize lead times. The process can be optimised as well by e.g. injecting and tenderizing of muscles separately or better recollection and reuse of drip. Better reception controls and supplier controls can lead to a better mapping and control of the incoming raw material. At last, an update of routines for better quantification before implementing the new business system M3 will facilitate future mapping of waste and thereby identification of main issues.},
  author       = {Lindgren Hermansson, Ebba},
  keyword      = {Food waste,Ham,Pork,Drip loss,Lean},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Mapping of waste in the ham production process and possible solutions},
  title        = {Mapping of waste in the ham production process and possible solutions},
  year         = {2018},
}