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Water Insoluble Fraction of Nopal (Opuntia ficus) Cladodes Beneficially Affects Postprandial Appetite-related Variables, while the Soluble Fraction Has No Effect: A Randomized Crossover Study in Healthy Volunteers

Kieu, Phuong Dung LU (2020) KNLM01 20201
Food Technology and Nutrition (M.Sc.)
Abstract
Introduction: The world has witnessed a global trend of increasing obesity, which is directly linked to non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). The epidemic of obesity is largely associated with consumption of high calorie diets and low physical activity. Food choice and exercise have a big impact to prevent obesity and T2D making these diseases highly related to personal lifestyle. The diet is one of the most important modifiable lifestyle factors that may be used to prevent obesity. Nopal (Opuntia Ficus Indica) is a cactus plant that has its origin in Mexico and has been used as traditional medicine to prevent overweight and obesity. Since Nopal cladodes are rich in several bioactive compounds, it may be considered as a... (More)
Introduction: The world has witnessed a global trend of increasing obesity, which is directly linked to non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). The epidemic of obesity is largely associated with consumption of high calorie diets and low physical activity. Food choice and exercise have a big impact to prevent obesity and T2D making these diseases highly related to personal lifestyle. The diet is one of the most important modifiable lifestyle factors that may be used to prevent obesity. Nopal (Opuntia Ficus Indica) is a cactus plant that has its origin in Mexico and has been used as traditional medicine to prevent overweight and obesity. Since Nopal cladodes are rich in several bioactive compounds, it may be considered as a functional food. The objective of this study was to investigate the perceived effect of Nopal cladodes on appetite variables in healthy humans.
Method: Two test-products with two different fractions of Nopal cladodes flour (soluble Nopal fraction bread (SNB) and insoluble Nopal fraction bread (INB)) and a control product (white wheat bread (WB)) were studied in healthy young volunteers (n=17). The subjective appetite variables (hunger, satiety and desire to eat) were measured repeatedly by using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) during a time perspective of three hours post consumption.
Results: The INB resulted in significantly improved response in appetite variables (p < 0.05) compared to the WB. After consumption of the INB, the feeling of hunger and desire to eat were reduced by 27% and 32% respectively, while the feeling of satiety was increased by 25% during the period between 15-180 min post consumption. Importantly, the INB test product also resulted in a significant reduction on hunger and desire to eat, and an increased feeling of satiety during the final hour (120-180 min), compared to the control WB.
Conclusion: The results indicate that the insoluble fraction of Nopal flour may beneficially affect appetite variables in healthy young adults. The results thus suggest that Nopal may help to modulate food intake and therefore contribute to antidiabetic effects previously observed with this edible plant. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Obesity is now a global epidemic and one of the major challenges to human health worldwide. The amount of overweight and obese people has increased significantly and become common in every part of the world. According to Worldometer, more than 750 million adults are obese in this moment. Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome and increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
The transition in modern society has led to changes in eating habits among world population. Overeating has become more and more common. The amount of processed and unhealthy food that is marketed on television or social media both for adults and children is continuing to increase. Being exposed to these food trends leads... (More)
Obesity is now a global epidemic and one of the major challenges to human health worldwide. The amount of overweight and obese people has increased significantly and become common in every part of the world. According to Worldometer, more than 750 million adults are obese in this moment. Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome and increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
The transition in modern society has led to changes in eating habits among world population. Overeating has become more and more common. The amount of processed and unhealthy food that is marketed on television or social media both for adults and children is continuing to increase. Being exposed to these food trends leads people to an unhealthy diet, which can increase the risk of overweight and obesity.
Appetite regulation is believed to have impact on the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut hormones produced in the gastrointestinal tract communicate with the appetite relating regions in the central nervous system through the gut brain axis in order to regulate food intake and appetite
To slow down the epidemic of obesity, an appropriate diet is extremely important. Furthermore, by changing the characteristics of the food to increase its satiating power would be another way to modulate food intake. Therefore, the research on food options that can be used in daily meals to prevent the development of obesity and improve appetite regulation is important.
Nopal is a cactus plant originating from Mexico. Nopal cladodes are except of dietary fiber rich in ascorbic acid, flavanols, carotenes, and flavonoids, which are bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. Nopal is used in traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of obesity and overweight.
A diploma work was conducted at Lund University in 2019 about postprandial appetite parameters following the intake of a Nopal-containing bread indicated that bread containing Nopal cladode flour affected subjective appetite variables by reducing hunger, increasing satiety and reducing desire to eat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the water soluble and water insoluble fractions of Nopal cladodes on postprandial appetite-related variables (hunger, satiety and desire to eat) in young healthy humans, in a period of three hours post consumption. Two designed breads supplemented with Nopal cladodes flour were prepared, and their postprandial impact on appetite was compared with a baked control bread lacking Nopal ingredients. The test persons rated their appetite by the use of a questionnaire, called Visual Analog Scale. There were three scales with different questions, “How hungry do you feel right now?”, “How full do you feel right now?” and “How much do you desire to eat right now?”. They answered these questions on a 100 mm line before they started eating (time 0) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90,120, 150, 180 minutes after the start of the test meal by marking their current feeling of appetite from 0 - 100.
This study showed that a bread containing the water insoluble fraction of Nopal cladodes had beneficial effects on postprandial appetite variables. It led to the reduction of hunger and desire to eat, while the satiety feeling increased. Thus, the intake of food during a day can be reduced by including the water insoluble fraction of Nopal cladodes in a meal, since it has the ability to make a person feel full for a longer period of time after the meal. Thereby, this fraction may be included in dietary strategies for prevention and treatment of obesity in the future. (Less)
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author
Kieu, Phuong Dung LU
supervisor
organization
course
KNLM01 20201
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Nopal cladodes, appetite variables, dietary fiber, hydrolysis index, obesity, applied nutrition, food chemistry, industriell näringslära, livsmedelskemi
language
English
id
9028023
date added to LUP
2020-09-15 11:36:10
date last changed
2020-09-15 11:36:10
@misc{9028023,
  abstract     = {Introduction: The world has witnessed a global trend of increasing obesity, which is directly linked to non-communicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). The epidemic of obesity is largely associated with consumption of high calorie diets and low physical activity. Food choice and exercise have a big impact to prevent obesity and T2D making these diseases highly related to personal lifestyle. The diet is one of the most important modifiable lifestyle factors that may be used to prevent obesity. Nopal (Opuntia Ficus Indica) is a cactus plant that has its origin in Mexico and has been used as traditional medicine to prevent overweight and obesity. Since Nopal cladodes are rich in several bioactive compounds, it may be considered as a functional food. The objective of this study was to investigate the perceived effect of Nopal cladodes on appetite variables in healthy humans. 
Method: Two test-products with two different fractions of Nopal cladodes flour (soluble Nopal fraction bread (SNB) and insoluble Nopal fraction bread (INB)) and a control product (white wheat bread (WB)) were studied in healthy young volunteers (n=17). The subjective appetite variables (hunger, satiety and desire to eat) were measured repeatedly by using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) during a time perspective of three hours post consumption.
Results: The INB resulted in significantly improved response in appetite variables (p < 0.05) compared to the WB. After consumption of the INB, the feeling of hunger and desire to eat were reduced by 27% and 32% respectively, while the feeling of satiety was increased by 25% during the period between 15-180 min post consumption. Importantly, the INB test product also resulted in a significant reduction on hunger and desire to eat, and an increased feeling of satiety during the final hour (120-180 min), compared to the control WB.
Conclusion: The results indicate that the insoluble fraction of Nopal flour may beneficially affect appetite variables in healthy young adults. The results thus suggest that Nopal may help to modulate food intake and therefore contribute to antidiabetic effects previously observed with this edible plant.},
  author       = {Kieu, Phuong Dung},
  keyword      = {Nopal cladodes,appetite variables,dietary fiber,hydrolysis index,obesity,applied nutrition,food chemistry,industriell näringslära,livsmedelskemi},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Water Insoluble Fraction of Nopal (Opuntia ficus) Cladodes Beneficially Affects Postprandial Appetite-related Variables, while the Soluble Fraction Has No Effect: A Randomized Crossover Study in Healthy Volunteers},
  year         = {2020},
}