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Development and examination of liquid plant-based young child formulae

Georgiou, Irineos LU (2021) MTTM01 20211
Product Development
Abstract
This study evaluated the pilot-scale rapid-prototyping development of liquid plant-based young child formulae, by exploring different sources of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and flavours. The study was undertaken in collaboration with an industrial partner thus confidential information was blinded.

The raw materials examined consisted of protein blends; Legume 1, Cereal 1, and Cereal 2; Legume 1 and Legume 2; Legume 1, Seed 1, and Cereal 2; Legume 3, Legume 4, and Cereal 2; Legume 5, and Seed 2; Legume 2, and Pseudocereal 1; Legume 1, and Cereal 3; carbohydrates; Control carbohydrate, Whole cereal carbohydrate, Liquid cereal carbohydrate, Legume carbohydrate, Root carbohydrate, and lipids; Seed oil 1, Nut oil, Seed oil 2. The... (More)
This study evaluated the pilot-scale rapid-prototyping development of liquid plant-based young child formulae, by exploring different sources of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and flavours. The study was undertaken in collaboration with an industrial partner thus confidential information was blinded.

The raw materials examined consisted of protein blends; Legume 1, Cereal 1, and Cereal 2; Legume 1 and Legume 2; Legume 1, Seed 1, and Cereal 2; Legume 3, Legume 4, and Cereal 2; Legume 5, and Seed 2; Legume 2, and Pseudocereal 1; Legume 1, and Cereal 3; carbohydrates; Control carbohydrate, Whole cereal carbohydrate, Liquid cereal carbohydrate, Legume carbohydrate, Root carbohydrate, and lipids; Seed oil 1, Nut oil, Seed oil 2. The ingredients were examined in matrices with complete macronutrient and key minerals composition.

Functional examination on heat stability and physicochemical examination on pH, calcium ion activity, viscosity, particle size distribution, and optical microstructure were performed on the samples after homogenization, after heat treatment, and upon storage for four weeks at 25, and 37 °C. Sensorial attributes, consumer perception, and nutritional properties as provided by the supplier; protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score, and dextrose equivalent were also evaluated.

Based on commercial availability, consumer insights, and the nutritional, physicochemical, and sensorial results, the ingredients with the most promising results for scale-up were selected; protein blends; Legume 1, Seed 1 and Cereal 2; Legume 1 and Cereal 3; carbohydrates; Liquid cereal carbohydrate, and Legume carbohydrate; and lipids; Seed oil 1, Nut oil, and Seed oil 2. Further, 31 flavours were examined at kitchen scale for their organoleptic properties when infused in the previously selected protein blends. Along with considerations on commercial availability, quality, and safety, the number of flavours was narrowed down to 11.

Together with a consumer perception research which took place simultaneously to this study, five product concepts were formulated, and were aligned with the selected raw materials. Packaging and labelling suggestions were created based on information obtained through workshops, and a benchmark analysis.

This study suggests further examination of the selected raw materials when combined together, and upon a complete nutritional composition. Moreover, scale-up considerations including adjustments on labelling and packaging should be applied for the product to be optimized and proceed to factory-scale development. (Less)
Popular Abstract
Can plant-based milk for children be made? Well yes, that’s what this study is about!

And what’s the big deal with that? To start with, commercial plant-based milks don’t have all the
necessary nutrients and in the right quantities for children. Also, since children are more sensitive,
extra care is needed for making sure they stay healthy, safe, and they don’t cry because their milk
sucks in taste!

And these are not all the challenges yet! Imagine making a plant-based milk with nuts or cereals; you
add the ingredients in water, blend everything together, strain the milk, and you store it in a
bottle. What happens after a couple of days? The solids that didn’t get mixed well passed from the
strainer, and now you see them on the... (More)
Can plant-based milk for children be made? Well yes, that’s what this study is about!

And what’s the big deal with that? To start with, commercial plant-based milks don’t have all the
necessary nutrients and in the right quantities for children. Also, since children are more sensitive,
extra care is needed for making sure they stay healthy, safe, and they don’t cry because their milk
sucks in taste!

And these are not all the challenges yet! Imagine making a plant-based milk with nuts or cereals; you
add the ingredients in water, blend everything together, strain the milk, and you store it in a
bottle. What happens after a couple of days? The solids that didn’t get mixed well passed from the
strainer, and now you see them on the bottom of the bottle! And what happens after a week or so?
The milk gets spoiled, ugh!

From a nutrition point of view, plant proteins are quite challenging, because they cannot form a
complete protein alone, as most animal proteins do. This means that at least two plant proteins need
to be blended together for making a complete protein. For example, bread alone is not a complete
protein, but bread with peanut butter is!

Since vegan, vegetarian, and flexitarian diets are constantly growing, many parents also feed their
children with vegan foods. Therefore, our purpose is to make sure that kids are enjoying products that
are healthy and nutritious!

Therefore, the goal of this study was to develop prototype products similar to plant-based milks, but
suitable to toddlers. For achieving this, we needed to think about different things for the ingredients:
• Commercial availability, so ingredients that are easily accessible, throughout the year, and in
big enough quantities.
• Consumer perception, in other words, to choose ingredients that are familiar with mums, and
that are known to be nutritious.
• Suitability, meaning that the ingredients are safe, and don’t cause problems to toddlers when
used in specific quantities.
• Nutritional composition, as for example too much protein can lead to obesity, while too little
iron can cause nutrient deficiency.
• Physical, chemical, and stability properties of the ingredients when mixed in liquids. For
instance, to make sure they get dissolved well, they don’t create lumps when heated, and they
don’t set on the bottom of the bottle after some time.
• Sensorial properties, meaning their smell, flavour, mouthfeel, and overall acceptance are good.

The ingredients we examined were different proteins, carbohydrates, lipids (oils), and flavours. So,
following the above considerations and results, we selected the best ingredients. Then, through
different workshops, we matched the best ingredients together, and we made five products! Last but
not least, we also designed some packaging ideas to give character to the products!

Well that was it, children will soon be able to enjoy plant-based milks without any fear! (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Georgiou, Irineos LU
supervisor
organization
course
MTTM01 20211
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
language
English
id
9056926
date added to LUP
2021-06-21 11:44:14
date last changed
2021-06-30 11:26:25
@misc{9056926,
  abstract     = {{This study evaluated the pilot-scale rapid-prototyping development of liquid plant-based young child formulae, by exploring different sources of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and flavours. The study was undertaken in collaboration with an industrial partner thus confidential information was blinded.

The raw materials examined consisted of protein blends; Legume 1, Cereal 1, and Cereal 2; Legume 1 and Legume 2; Legume 1, Seed 1, and Cereal 2; Legume 3, Legume 4, and Cereal 2; Legume 5, and Seed 2; Legume 2, and Pseudocereal 1; Legume 1, and Cereal 3; carbohydrates; Control carbohydrate, Whole cereal carbohydrate, Liquid cereal carbohydrate, Legume carbohydrate, Root carbohydrate, and lipids; Seed oil 1, Nut oil, Seed oil 2. The ingredients were examined in matrices with complete macronutrient and key minerals composition.
 
Functional examination on heat stability and physicochemical examination on pH, calcium ion activity, viscosity, particle size distribution, and optical microstructure were performed on the samples after homogenization, after heat treatment, and upon storage for four weeks at 25, and 37 °C. Sensorial attributes, consumer perception, and nutritional properties as provided by the supplier; protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score, and dextrose equivalent were also evaluated.

Based on commercial availability, consumer insights, and the nutritional, physicochemical, and sensorial results, the ingredients with the most promising results for scale-up were selected; protein blends; Legume 1, Seed 1 and Cereal 2; Legume 1 and Cereal 3; carbohydrates; Liquid cereal carbohydrate, and Legume carbohydrate; and lipids; Seed oil 1, Nut oil, and Seed oil 2. Further, 31 flavours were examined at kitchen scale for their organoleptic properties when infused in the previously selected protein blends. Along with considerations on commercial availability, quality, and safety, the number of flavours was narrowed down to 11.
 
Together with a consumer perception research which took place simultaneously to this study, five product concepts were formulated, and were aligned with the selected raw materials. Packaging and labelling suggestions were created based on information obtained through workshops, and a benchmark analysis.
 
This study suggests further examination of the selected raw materials when combined together, and upon a complete nutritional composition. Moreover, scale-up considerations including adjustments on labelling and packaging should be applied for the product to be optimized and proceed to factory-scale development.}},
  author       = {{Georgiou, Irineos}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  note         = {{Student Paper}},
  title        = {{Development and examination of liquid plant-based young child formulae}},
  year         = {{2021}},
}