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The Dead Sea Future Elevation Based on Water and Salt Mass Balances

Bashitialshaaer, Raed LU ; Persson, Kenneth M LU and Aljaradin, Mohammad LU (2011) In Handshacke across the Jordan : water and understanding 10. p.163-189
Abstract
Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled. Precipitation, evaporation, river discharges, ground water flows, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included in the models. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled using a single-layer (well-mixed) a two-layer (stratified) system.

Using the single-layer approach the water level was predicted to change from 411 m below mean sea level (bmsl) (in 1997) to 391 m and 479 m bmsl (in 2097) based on water mass balances including and excluding brine discharge, respectively, and to reach 402 m and 444 m for the two cases based on a salt mass balance. In the two-layer approach the water level after 100 years was predicted to change... (More)
Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled. Precipitation, evaporation, river discharges, ground water flows, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included in the models. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled using a single-layer (well-mixed) a two-layer (stratified) system.

Using the single-layer approach the water level was predicted to change from 411 m below mean sea level (bmsl) (in 1997) to 391 m and 479 m bmsl (in 2097) based on water mass balances including and excluding brine discharge, respectively, and to reach 402 m and 444 m for the two cases based on a salt mass balance. In the two-layer approach the water level after 100 years was predicted to change from 411 m bmsl (1997) to 397 m and 488 m for a water mass balance including and excluding brine discharge, respectively, and to reach 387 m and 425 m for the two cases using a salt mass balance.

The water mixing time using the single-layer description increased from 58 to 116 years when excluding brine discharge. Using the two-layer approach the exchange or mixing time increased in both layers, when adding brine discharge to the system, from 1.2 to 1.7 years and 11 to 15.3 years in the upper and lower layers, respectively. Good agreement was found between the models and historical data. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Mixing time, Historical comparison, Single and Two-Layer system, Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal (RSDSC), Water-Salt balance, Dead Sea water level
categories
Popular Science
in
Handshacke across the Jordan : water and understanding
editor
Aufleger, Markus and Mett, Michael
volume
10
pages
163 - 189
publisher
Innsbruck University Press
ISBN
978-3-902719-49-2
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
c6b40ad7-a697-47f4-bba9-52a1d0335202 (old id 2064976)
date added to LUP
2011-08-23 12:53:50
date last changed
2016-04-16 07:45:33
@misc{c6b40ad7-a697-47f4-bba9-52a1d0335202,
  abstract     = {Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled. Precipitation, evaporation, river discharges, ground water flows, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included in the models. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled using a single-layer (well-mixed) a two-layer (stratified) system. <br/><br>
Using the single-layer approach the water level was predicted to change from 411 m below mean sea level (bmsl) (in 1997) to 391 m and 479 m bmsl (in 2097) based on water mass balances including and excluding brine discharge, respectively, and to reach 402 m and 444 m for the two cases based on a salt mass balance. In the two-layer approach the water level after 100 years was predicted to change from 411 m bmsl (1997) to 397 m and 488 m for a water mass balance including and excluding brine discharge, respectively, and to reach 387 m and 425 m for the two cases using a salt mass balance. <br/><br>
The water mixing time using the single-layer description increased from 58 to 116 years when excluding brine discharge. Using the two-layer approach the exchange or mixing time increased in both layers, when adding brine discharge to the system, from 1.2 to 1.7 years and 11 to 15.3 years in the upper and lower layers, respectively. Good agreement was found between the models and historical data.},
  author       = {Bashitialshaaer, Raed and Persson, Kenneth M and Aljaradin, Mohammad},
  editor       = {Aufleger, Markus and Mett, Michael},
  isbn         = {978-3-902719-49-2},
  keyword      = {Mixing time,Historical comparison,Single and Two-Layer system,Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal (RSDSC),Water-Salt balance,Dead Sea water level},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {163--189},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0xb767fa8)},
  series       = {Handshacke across the Jordan : water and understanding},
  title        = {The Dead Sea Future Elevation Based on Water and Salt Mass Balances},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2011},
}