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Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates: Inhibition and Detoxification

Palmqvist, Eva LU (1998)
Abstract
The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain... (More)
The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effects of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g l-1) and furfural (3 g l-1) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g l-1). By maintaining a high cellmass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of biocenvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cellmass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation. (Less)
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author
opponent
  • Professor du Preez, James
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
fermentation strategies, mechanisms, identification, inhibition, lignocellulosic hydrolysates, Ethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, virology, virologi, mykologi, mycology, Mikrobiologi, bakteriologi, bacteriology, Microbiology
pages
129 pages
publisher
Department of Applied Microbiology, Lund University
defense location
Kemicentrum, Sölveg. 39, Sal C
defense date
1998-02-13 10:15
external identifiers
  • Other:ISRN: LUTKDH/TKMB--98/1027--SE
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
670f9265-45da-4456-a996-b53d4428a4be (old id 38385)
date added to LUP
2007-10-14 17:35:36
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:14
@misc{670f9265-45da-4456-a996-b53d4428a4be,
  abstract     = {The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effects of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g l-1) and furfural (3 g l-1) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g l-1). By maintaining a high cellmass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of biocenvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cellmass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation.},
  author       = {Palmqvist, Eva},
  keyword      = {fermentation strategies,mechanisms,identification,inhibition,lignocellulosic hydrolysates,Ethanol,Saccharomyces cerevisiae,virology,virologi,mykologi,mycology,Mikrobiologi,bakteriologi,bacteriology,Microbiology},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {129},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x9e00c90)},
  title        = {Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates: Inhibition and Detoxification},
  year         = {1998},
}