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Prior Knowledge and Recognition Memory - a Computational Modeling Approach

Hellman, Johan LU (2013)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Studiet av igenkänningsminne har varit centralt i minneslitteraturen under mer än ett århundrade, vilket har resulterat i ökad förståelse för hur olika minnesprocesser fungeraroch interagerar vid inkodning, lagring och framplockning av minnen. Igenkänningsminne är vanligtvis förklarat av mät-modeller och statistiska modeller vilka härstammar från tvåprocess teori och signal detektions teori. I denna avhandling jämförs de mest populära modellerna av igenkänningsminne med en ny implementering av variansteorin (Sikström, 2001), för att förklara frekvens och familjaritets effekter, och en ny modell av konfidens och

responsvariabilitet, kallad MSDT (den multidimensionella signal detektions... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Studiet av igenkänningsminne har varit centralt i minneslitteraturen under mer än ett århundrade, vilket har resulterat i ökad förståelse för hur olika minnesprocesser fungeraroch interagerar vid inkodning, lagring och framplockning av minnen. Igenkänningsminne är vanligtvis förklarat av mät-modeller och statistiska modeller vilka härstammar från tvåprocess teori och signal detektions teori. I denna avhandling jämförs de mest populära modellerna av igenkänningsminne med en ny implementering av variansteorin (Sikström, 2001), för att förklara frekvens och familjaritets effekter, och en ny modell av konfidens och

responsvariabilitet, kallad MSDT (den multidimensionella signal detektions teorin).

Huvudsyftet med avhandlingen är att studera effekterna av tidigare kunskap på igenkänningsminne, vilket sker med beteende-, elektrofysiologiska och modellerings metoder.

I studie 1 introduceras ett nytt paradigm för att studera frekvens och familjaritetseffekter där igenkänningsminne testades på vanliga och ovanliga namn vilka varierade i celebritet.

Paradigmet testades med flera tekniker som ger en detaljerad beskrivning av celebritets och frekvenseffekter på igenkänningsminne i fyra experiment. Denna studie visade att igenkänning av kända och okända namn med hög och låg frekvens är kopplat till specifik

och icke-specifik kunskap. Inkodning av namn på kända personer resulterade i högre minnesprestation jämfört med okända namn, samt framplockning av mer och detaljerad kontextuell information. Resultaten tolkades i enlighet med två-process teori, där de positiva effekterna av celebritet relaterades till minnesprocessen erinring (fri översättning av ”recollection”), och de negativa effekterna av frekvens relaterades till minnesprocessen bekantskap (fri översättning av ”familiarity”).

I studie 2 undersöktes effekter av tidigare kunskap på igenkänningsminne med metoden Event-Related Potentials (ERP), med vilken elektrofysiologiska signaturer av kognitiva 11 processer kan kopplas till experimentella manipulationer. Mer specifikt undersöktes

huruvida de elektrofysiologiska signaturer som tidigare kopplats till processerna bekantskap och erinring, FN400 (Mecklinger, 2006) och den sena positiva komponenten (LPC, se Rugg & Yonelinas, 2003) respektive, induceras av frekvens och celebritet. I ett andra experiment undersöktes den påstådda kopplingen mellan konceptuell priming och bekantskap (Paller, Voss & Boehm, 2007). Beteenderesultaten replikerade fynden från studie 1, och ERP analysen visade att lågfrekventa namn gav upphov till FN400, emedan celebritet i högre utsträckning än frekvens inducerade den sena positiva komponenten (LPC). Experiment 2 visade att bekantskap (FN400 komponenten) inte var relaterad till konceptuell priming.

I studie 3 användes namnparadigmet för att replikera fynden från studie 1, och en ny implementering av variansteorin (Sikström, 2001) användes för att förklara dessa fynd. I två experiment studerades item minne, källminne och associativt minne med namnparadigmet, och fynden från studie 1 och 2 replikerades. I VT definierades celebritet som pre-experimentell inkodning av stimulus, där framplockning av tidigare inkodade stimulus ökar input till noder i nätverket eftersom det framplockade stimulus har hög koherens med tidigare inkodning av stimulus. Frekvens påverkar standardavvikelsen för input till nätverket, men inte storleken på input, eftersom hög frekvens är implementerat som ett högre antal pre-experimentella kontexter.

I Studie 4 introducerades en ny modell av konfidensdata (ROC kurvor) – MSDT. MSDT beskriver minne med tre parametrar, liknande signal detektions teori (SDT), men introducerar en icke-linjaritet i konventionell SDT, baserar sig på en binomialfördelning snarare än en normalfördelning av de underliggande distributionerna samt ger en

multidimensionell förklaring av minnesfenomen. MSDT sätter upp nya prediktioner vilka testades på och bekräftades av data från personer med varierande nivå av uppmärksamhet (ADHD och friska kontroller). Modellen jämfördes med en variant av SDT i där de underliggande distributionerna antas ha olika varians, samt en två-process modell (Yonelinas, 1994). MSDT gav både en kvalitativt och kvantitativt bättre förklaring av empiriska data av ord igenkänning. Enligt modellen har uppmärksamma individer ett högre antal aktiva noder vid framplockning, och en lägre variabilitet i aktiveringströskeln jämfört med icke-uppmärksamma individer. Detta resulterade i högre minnesprestation och en lägre kvot av konfidensvariabilitet för studerade och icke studerade ord för uppmärksamma deltagare. MSDT ger även en förklaring till varför ickeuppmärksamma individer accepterar fler ostuderade stimulus som studerade jämfört med uppmärksamma individer, och föreslår att skillnader i variabilitet för studerade och ostuderade stimuli uppstår som ett resultat av variabilitet i distributionen för ostuderade stimulus, snarare än i den för studerade. Modeller ger även en enhetlig förklaring av konfidensdata och responsvariabilitet. (Less)
Abstract
For more than a century, an immense interest has been devoted to the study of recognition memory, where a multitude of memory phenomena has been explained.

Recognition memory is usually described with parsimonious measurement and statistical models, stemming from dual process theory and signal detection theory. In the present thesis, the most often used models of recognition memory are reviewed and compared to a novel implementation of the variance theory, abbreviated the VT (Sikström, 2001) in the account of frequency and familiarity effects, and a new model of item variability (the multidimensional signal detection theory, abbreviated the MSDT). The focus of the thesis lies on the effects of prior knowledge on recognition... (More)
For more than a century, an immense interest has been devoted to the study of recognition memory, where a multitude of memory phenomena has been explained.

Recognition memory is usually described with parsimonious measurement and statistical models, stemming from dual process theory and signal detection theory. In the present thesis, the most often used models of recognition memory are reviewed and compared to a novel implementation of the variance theory, abbreviated the VT (Sikström, 2001) in the account of frequency and familiarity effects, and a new model of item variability (the multidimensional signal detection theory, abbreviated the MSDT). The focus of the thesis lies on the effects of prior knowledge on recognition memory, investigated with behavioral, electrophysiological and modeling approaches.

In Study 1, a novel paradigm for measuring frequency and familiarity effects in recognition memory was introduced (the name paradigm), where recognition memory was tested on rare and common names that were famous and non-famous. The name paradigm was experimentally implemented in different conditions that provided a detailed description of fame and familiarity effects in recognition memory in four experiments. The study showed that pre-experimental knowledge both facilitates and impairs memory. Fame and frequency were selectively related to specific and non-specific semantic knowledge, where the former enabled retrieval of more and detailed information whereas frequency lacked such specificity at retrieval.

The second study elaborated on prior knowledge on recognition memory with the name paradigm by recording Event-Related Potentials, a method with which electrophysiological signatures of cognitive processes can be linked to experimental manipulations. More specific, it was investigated whether old/new effects previously related to familiarity and recollection, the FN400 old/new effect (Mecklinger, 2006) and the late positive component (the LPC, see Rugg & Yonelinas, 2003), respectively, would be selectively induced by frequency and fame, thereby linking the experimental variables to the two memory processes. Further, in a second experiment, the proposed link between familiarity and conceptual priming (Paller, Voss & Boehm, 2007) was investigated. The behavioral findings replicated those in Study 1, and the ERP analysis revealed that low frequent names elicited the FN400 effect, whereas fame to a higher extent than frequency gave rise to the LPC. Experiment 2 demonstrated that familiarity (i.e., the FN400) is insensitive to conceptual priming.

Study 3 provided a comprehensive account of fame and frequency effects by a novel implementation of the VT (Sikström, 2001). In two experiments the name paradigm was implemented in conditions where item, source and associative memory was assessed, which replicated the memory findings in Study 1 and 2. In the VT, fame was defined as a pre-experimental encoding of the stimulus. When a famous name was encoded the reinstatement of the item, based on previous experiences (prior to the experimental test) was associated with an increase in the specificity of the representation. This lead to an increase in net input to the underlying at retrieval, due to the high degree of similarity between the encoded and the retrieved item, and low degree of variability. Frequency, on the other hand affected the variability but not the magnitude of the net input, which resulted in lower memory performance.

In Study 4, a new model of item variability was introduced, the MSDT. The MSDT describes memory with three parameters, similar to the account provided by signal detection theory (SDT), but introduces non-linearity’s to SDT, relies on binomial rather than normal latent distributions, and provides a multidimensional account of memory phenomena. The MSDT suggests novel predictions on changes in item variability as a function of attentional skill (i.e., ADHD versus healthy controls and varying degrees of attentional disabilities) as well as for the mediators in the differences in response variability in attentive and inattentive people. These predictions were tested on attentive and inattentive people, and provided augmented support for the model. The MSDT was conceptually and mathematically compared to the unequal-variance signal detection theory and the dual-process signal detection model (Yonelinas, 1994), and provided a more comprehensive account of the studied memory phenomena. Because attentive people yield a higher number of active nodes than attentive, and a lower variability in the activation threshold, the former group performs better and yields a higher ratio of new to old item variability than the latter. The MSDT also account for higher level of false alarms in inattentive than attentive, and suggests that the difference in new to old item variability is a result of increased new item variability relative that of old items. Further, the model provides a unified account of item- and response variability. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Berry, Christopher, Plymouth University
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Recognition memory, Episodic memory, Pre-experimental familiarity, Event-Related Potentials, Item variability, Receiver-Operating Characteristics, Computational Models
pages
214 pages
publisher
Department of Psychology, Lund University
defense location
Kulturens Auditorium, Tegnérsplatsen, Lund
defense date
2013-10-04 10:00
ISBN
978-91-7473-631-1 and 978-91-7473-632-8
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
80459f0e-60f2-4e8b-b308-b27cd52afb56 (old id 4022268)
date added to LUP
2013-09-09 08:15:02
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:15
@misc{80459f0e-60f2-4e8b-b308-b27cd52afb56,
  abstract     = {For more than a century, an immense interest has been devoted to the study of recognition memory, where a multitude of memory phenomena has been explained.<br/><br>
Recognition memory is usually described with parsimonious measurement and statistical models, stemming from dual process theory and signal detection theory. In the present thesis, the most often used models of recognition memory are reviewed and compared to a novel implementation of the variance theory, abbreviated the VT (Sikström, 2001) in the account of frequency and familiarity effects, and a new model of item variability (the multidimensional signal detection theory, abbreviated the MSDT). The focus of the thesis lies on the effects of prior knowledge on recognition memory, investigated with behavioral, electrophysiological and modeling approaches.<br/><br>
In Study 1, a novel paradigm for measuring frequency and familiarity effects in recognition memory was introduced (the name paradigm), where recognition memory was tested on rare and common names that were famous and non-famous. The name paradigm was experimentally implemented in different conditions that provided a detailed description of fame and familiarity effects in recognition memory in four experiments. The study showed that pre-experimental knowledge both facilitates and impairs memory. Fame and frequency were selectively related to specific and non-specific semantic knowledge, where the former enabled retrieval of more and detailed information whereas frequency lacked such specificity at retrieval.<br/><br>
The second study elaborated on prior knowledge on recognition memory with the name paradigm by recording Event-Related Potentials, a method with which electrophysiological signatures of cognitive processes can be linked to experimental manipulations. More specific, it was investigated whether old/new effects previously related to familiarity and recollection, the FN400 old/new effect (Mecklinger, 2006) and the late positive component (the LPC, see Rugg &amp; Yonelinas, 2003), respectively, would be selectively induced by frequency and fame, thereby linking the experimental variables to the two memory processes. Further, in a second experiment, the proposed link between familiarity and conceptual priming (Paller, Voss &amp; Boehm, 2007) was investigated. The behavioral findings replicated those in Study 1, and the ERP analysis revealed that low frequent names elicited the FN400 effect, whereas fame to a higher extent than frequency gave rise to the LPC. Experiment 2 demonstrated that familiarity (i.e., the FN400) is insensitive to conceptual priming.<br/><br>
Study 3 provided a comprehensive account of fame and frequency effects by a novel implementation of the VT (Sikström, 2001). In two experiments the name paradigm was implemented in conditions where item, source and associative memory was assessed, which replicated the memory findings in Study 1 and 2. In the VT, fame was defined as a pre-experimental encoding of the stimulus. When a famous name was encoded the reinstatement of the item, based on previous experiences (prior to the experimental test) was associated with an increase in the specificity of the representation. This lead to an increase in net input to the underlying at retrieval, due to the high degree of similarity between the encoded and the retrieved item, and low degree of variability. Frequency, on the other hand affected the variability but not the magnitude of the net input, which resulted in lower memory performance.<br/><br>
In Study 4, a new model of item variability was introduced, the MSDT. The MSDT describes memory with three parameters, similar to the account provided by signal detection theory (SDT), but introduces non-linearity’s to SDT, relies on binomial rather than normal latent distributions, and provides a multidimensional account of memory phenomena. The MSDT suggests novel predictions on changes in item variability as a function of attentional skill (i.e., ADHD versus healthy controls and varying degrees of attentional disabilities) as well as for the mediators in the differences in response variability in attentive and inattentive people. These predictions were tested on attentive and inattentive people, and provided augmented support for the model. The MSDT was conceptually and mathematically compared to the unequal-variance signal detection theory and the dual-process signal detection model (Yonelinas, 1994), and provided a more comprehensive account of the studied memory phenomena. Because attentive people yield a higher number of active nodes than attentive, and a lower variability in the activation threshold, the former group performs better and yields a higher ratio of new to old item variability than the latter. The MSDT also account for higher level of false alarms in inattentive than attentive, and suggests that the difference in new to old item variability is a result of increased new item variability relative that of old items. Further, the model provides a unified account of item- and response variability.},
  author       = {Hellman, Johan},
  isbn         = {978-91-7473-631-1 and 978-91-7473-632-8},
  keyword      = {Recognition memory,Episodic memory,Pre-experimental familiarity,Event-Related Potentials,Item variability,Receiver-Operating Characteristics,Computational Models},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {214},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0xb29be80)},
  title        = {Prior Knowledge and Recognition Memory - a Computational Modeling Approach},
  year         = {2013},
}