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Structure, Morphology, and Catalytic Properties of CuOx/CeO2 Model Catalysts

Skårman, Björn LU (2002)
Abstract
Cerium dioxide, or ceria, is a chemically stable oxygen ion conducting material with a capacity to store and release oxygen, and is therefore extensively used in combustion catalysts. The Cu-Ce-O system has been identified as one of the most active catalysts for the combustion of carbon monoxide. To study the catalytic oxidation of CO, we have synthesised model CuO<sub>x</sub>/CeO<sub>2</sub> catalysts by gas phase techniques.



PVD rf-magnetron sputtering was used to produce thin film catalysts. Inert gas condensation (IGC) with multiple thermal heating sources was employed to produce nanocomposite particles. This allowed us also to study the growth of thin films and particles, respectively. The... (More)
Cerium dioxide, or ceria, is a chemically stable oxygen ion conducting material with a capacity to store and release oxygen, and is therefore extensively used in combustion catalysts. The Cu-Ce-O system has been identified as one of the most active catalysts for the combustion of carbon monoxide. To study the catalytic oxidation of CO, we have synthesised model CuO<sub>x</sub>/CeO<sub>2</sub> catalysts by gas phase techniques.



PVD rf-magnetron sputtering was used to produce thin film catalysts. Inert gas condensation (IGC) with multiple thermal heating sources was employed to produce nanocomposite particles. This allowed us also to study the growth of thin films and particles, respectively. The catalysts were characterised by a powerful complementary combination of methods, combining small-area and whole-sample characterisation of local structure and long-range order; High resolution electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and analytical X-ray techniques, such as energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. High-energy diffraction, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation were employed to collect information on crystallinity and the local environment of Cu.



The thin CeO<sub>2</sub> films grown on surfaces of á-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> formed extremely sharp ridges exposing exclusively {111}-type surfaces despite the nominally (001)-orientation. We found that a well-defined portion of (001) could be created by annealing. Thin layers of CuO<sub>x</sub> were deposited on top of both the as-prepared and annealed ceria thin films. The annealed films with copper on top exhibit a markedly higher activity than the others, indicating a favourable synergistic effect between the copper oxide and CeO<sub>2</sub>(100) surfaces (i.e. catalytic anisotropy). In addition, it was realised that the as-prepared films are excellent for quickly evaluating AFM tips (i.e. as tip characteriser), and for studying artefacts and tip-sample phenomena occurring during tapping mode AFM imaging. Nanocomposite CuO<sub>x</sub>/CeO<sub>2</sub> particles were produced over the whole compositional range. A change of the copper content clearly altered the nanostructured morphology, forming e.g. crust structures between 30 and 70 at.% Cu. A growth mechanism for the formation of crust structures is suggested. The dispersion of copper that controls the number of active sites and, hence, the catalytic activity was shown to be dependent on the: <i>i</i>) total copper content, <i>ii</i>) the nanostructured morphology, and <i>iii</i>) the crystallinity of ceria. A copper content between 5 and 30 at.% Cu was found to be beneficial for the combustion of carbon monoxide. (Less)
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author
opponent
  • Dr Hansen, Poul L., Haldor Topsøe A/S, Lyngby, Denmark
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Synchrotron radiation, High-energy Diffraction, X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy., Chemical technology and engineering, Kemiteknik och kemisk teknologi, Chemistry, Kemi, Material technology, Materiallära, materialteknik, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy, Gatan Image Filter (GIF), Energy-filtered TEM, High-resolution electron microscopy, Inert gas condensation (IGC), rf Magnetron sputtering, Thermal activation, Batch reactor, Carbon monoxide oxidation, Surface sensitivity, Catalytic anisotropy, Growth, Nucleation, Topography, Roughness, Core-shell structures, Morphology, Nanostructured, Nanocomposite, Nanoparticles, Surface structure, Polycrystalline surfaces, Thin films, Copper oxide, Cerium dioxide (CeO2), Ceria
pages
126 pages
publisher
Truus Frid, Dept. of Materials Chemistry, Chemical Center, Lund University
defense location
Chemical Center K:D, Lund
defense date
2002-03-22 13:15
ISBN
91-628-5123-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
1e67643d-e838-4c23-9193-8c176a831629 (old id 464413)
date added to LUP
2007-10-14 16:16:40
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:08
@misc{1e67643d-e838-4c23-9193-8c176a831629,
  abstract     = {Cerium dioxide, or ceria, is a chemically stable oxygen ion conducting material with a capacity to store and release oxygen, and is therefore extensively used in combustion catalysts. The Cu-Ce-O system has been identified as one of the most active catalysts for the combustion of carbon monoxide. To study the catalytic oxidation of CO, we have synthesised model CuO&lt;sub&gt;x&lt;/sub&gt;/CeO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; catalysts by gas phase techniques.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
PVD rf-magnetron sputtering was used to produce thin film catalysts. Inert gas condensation (IGC) with multiple thermal heating sources was employed to produce nanocomposite particles. This allowed us also to study the growth of thin films and particles, respectively. The catalysts were characterised by a powerful complementary combination of methods, combining small-area and whole-sample characterisation of local structure and long-range order; High resolution electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and analytical X-ray techniques, such as energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. High-energy diffraction, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation were employed to collect information on crystallinity and the local environment of Cu.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The thin CeO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; films grown on surfaces of á-Al&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;O&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt; formed extremely sharp ridges exposing exclusively {111}-type surfaces despite the nominally (001)-orientation. We found that a well-defined portion of (001) could be created by annealing. Thin layers of CuO&lt;sub&gt;x&lt;/sub&gt; were deposited on top of both the as-prepared and annealed ceria thin films. The annealed films with copper on top exhibit a markedly higher activity than the others, indicating a favourable synergistic effect between the copper oxide and CeO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;(100) surfaces (i.e. catalytic anisotropy). In addition, it was realised that the as-prepared films are excellent for quickly evaluating AFM tips (i.e. as tip characteriser), and for studying artefacts and tip-sample phenomena occurring during tapping mode AFM imaging. Nanocomposite CuO&lt;sub&gt;x&lt;/sub&gt;/CeO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; particles were produced over the whole compositional range. A change of the copper content clearly altered the nanostructured morphology, forming e.g. crust structures between 30 and 70 at.% Cu. A growth mechanism for the formation of crust structures is suggested. The dispersion of copper that controls the number of active sites and, hence, the catalytic activity was shown to be dependent on the: &lt;i&gt;i&lt;/i&gt;) total copper content, &lt;i&gt;ii&lt;/i&gt;) the nanostructured morphology, and &lt;i&gt;iii&lt;/i&gt;) the crystallinity of ceria. A copper content between 5 and 30 at.% Cu was found to be beneficial for the combustion of carbon monoxide.},
  author       = {Skårman, Björn},
  isbn         = {91-628-5123-3},
  keyword      = {Synchrotron radiation,High-energy Diffraction,X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy.,Chemical technology and engineering,Kemiteknik och kemisk teknologi,Chemistry,Kemi,Material technology,Materiallära,materialteknik,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,Atomic force microscopy,Gatan Image Filter (GIF),Energy-filtered TEM,High-resolution electron microscopy,Inert gas condensation (IGC),rf Magnetron sputtering,Thermal activation,Batch reactor,Carbon monoxide oxidation,Surface sensitivity,Catalytic anisotropy,Growth,Nucleation,Topography,Roughness,Core-shell structures,Morphology,Nanostructured,Nanocomposite,Nanoparticles,Surface structure,Polycrystalline surfaces,Thin films,Copper oxide,Cerium dioxide (CeO2),Ceria},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {126},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x92432c0)},
  title        = {Structure, Morphology, and Catalytic Properties of CuO<sub>x</sub>/CeO<sub>2</sub> Model Catalysts},
  year         = {2002},
}