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On the Value of Pictures in Verbal Cognition

Wiking, Susanne LU (2002)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Syftet med avhandlingen var att analysera värdet av bilder i ett antal kognitiva uppgifter som framförallt är av verbal natur. Avhandlingen omfattar tre studier, med vardera tre experiment. I den första studien visades automatiskt inflytande från bilder (ansiktsuttryck) på en affektiv bedömning av ord som positiva eller negativa. I den integrerade presentationen av ord och bilder blev bedömningen av ordet fördröjd av ett ansikte som visade motsatt affektiv valens. Resultaten stämmer överens med bearbetningsmodeller där bilder har privilegierad tillgång till sin innebörd, och där den här konceptuella representationen omfattar affektiv information.



I den andra studien visades... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Syftet med avhandlingen var att analysera värdet av bilder i ett antal kognitiva uppgifter som framförallt är av verbal natur. Avhandlingen omfattar tre studier, med vardera tre experiment. I den första studien visades automatiskt inflytande från bilder (ansiktsuttryck) på en affektiv bedömning av ord som positiva eller negativa. I den integrerade presentationen av ord och bilder blev bedömningen av ordet fördröjd av ett ansikte som visade motsatt affektiv valens. Resultaten stämmer överens med bearbetningsmodeller där bilder har privilegierad tillgång till sin innebörd, och där den här konceptuella representationen omfattar affektiv information.



I den andra studien visades effekter av bilder (objekt) på senare igenkänning av textpresenterade objektnamn. Bilderna förbättrade igenkänning, men i samma utsträckning som förstorade ord i marginalen. Igenkänning av konkreta och abstrakta målord förbättrades i samma utsträckning av förstärkning med de förstorade orden. Eftersom konkreta ord mer sannolikt väcker mentala föreställningsbilder, drogs slutsatsen att bilder i den här uppgiften fungerade på samma sätt som verbal repetition.



I den tredje studien undersöktes nyttan med bilder (illustrationer) för förståelse och behållning av vetenskapligt material. En jämförelse gjordes mellan två längder på instuderingstid, och under den längre studietiden verkade bilder ge en illusion av full förståelse. Den här illusionen kan ha resulterat i mindre förbättring av förståelsen med ökad studietid för läsare av text med bilder, än för läsare av texten för sig själv. Trots att det totala antalet deltagare uppgick till 280 stycken, visade inget av experimenten i studie 3 något gynnsamt inflytande från bilder på förståelse av materialen.



Resultaten diskuterades utförligt i termer av inkodningsaktiviteter och uppgifter. (Less)
Abstract
The aim of this thesis was to analyze the value of pictures in a number of cognitive tasks that are predominantly verbal in nature. Three studies, with three experiments each, are included in the thesis. The first study found automatic interference effects from pictures (facial expressions) on the affective evaluation of words. In the Stroop-like presentation of integrated picture-and-word stimuli, faces with incongruent valence slowed responding to the affective words. The results are consistent with models where pictures have privileged access to their meaning, and where affective information is available in this conceptual representation. The second study showed the effects of pictures (objects) on the later recognition of... (More)
The aim of this thesis was to analyze the value of pictures in a number of cognitive tasks that are predominantly verbal in nature. Three studies, with three experiments each, are included in the thesis. The first study found automatic interference effects from pictures (facial expressions) on the affective evaluation of words. In the Stroop-like presentation of integrated picture-and-word stimuli, faces with incongruent valence slowed responding to the affective words. The results are consistent with models where pictures have privileged access to their meaning, and where affective information is available in this conceptual representation. The second study showed the effects of pictures (objects) on the later recognition of text-presented object names. The pictures were found to improve recognition, but to the same extent as words enlarged in the margins. Concrete and abstract target words both benefited to the same extent from the enlarged word enhancement. Since concrete words are more likely to evoke imagery, it was concluded that pictures functioned in a way similar to verbal repetition. The third study examined the usefulness of pictures (illustrations) in the comprehension of scientific materials. Two lengths of study-time were compared, and in the longer study-time illustrations appeared to give an illusion of full understanding. This illusion may have resulted in less improvement in comprehension with added study time for readers of text with pictures than for readers of text alone. Over a total of 280 participants in the third study, none of the experiments revealed any beneficial effects from illustrations on the comprehension of instructional materials. The results were discussed in terms of encoding activities and tasks. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Associate Professor Olofsson, Ulrik, Linköping University
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Psykologi, Psychology, study-time, comprehension, illustrations, text enhancement, object-names, affective information, pictures, facial expressions
pages
185 pages
publisher
Department of Psychology, Lund University
defense location
Kulturens auditorium
defense date
2002-04-25 10:15
external identifiers
  • Other:ISRN-LUSADG/SAPS--02/1105--SE
ISBN
91-628-5178-0
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
51b963a3-bbcb-4fe3-b505-69f923067423 (old id 464486)
date added to LUP
2007-09-11 11:40:22
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:07
@misc{51b963a3-bbcb-4fe3-b505-69f923067423,
  abstract     = {The aim of this thesis was to analyze the value of pictures in a number of cognitive tasks that are predominantly verbal in nature. Three studies, with three experiments each, are included in the thesis. The first study found automatic interference effects from pictures (facial expressions) on the affective evaluation of words. In the Stroop-like presentation of integrated picture-and-word stimuli, faces with incongruent valence slowed responding to the affective words. The results are consistent with models where pictures have privileged access to their meaning, and where affective information is available in this conceptual representation. The second study showed the effects of pictures (objects) on the later recognition of text-presented object names. The pictures were found to improve recognition, but to the same extent as words enlarged in the margins. Concrete and abstract target words both benefited to the same extent from the enlarged word enhancement. Since concrete words are more likely to evoke imagery, it was concluded that pictures functioned in a way similar to verbal repetition. The third study examined the usefulness of pictures (illustrations) in the comprehension of scientific materials. Two lengths of study-time were compared, and in the longer study-time illustrations appeared to give an illusion of full understanding. This illusion may have resulted in less improvement in comprehension with added study time for readers of text with pictures than for readers of text alone. Over a total of 280 participants in the third study, none of the experiments revealed any beneficial effects from illustrations on the comprehension of instructional materials. The results were discussed in terms of encoding activities and tasks.},
  author       = {Wiking, Susanne},
  isbn         = {91-628-5178-0},
  keyword      = {Psykologi,Psychology,study-time,comprehension,illustrations,text enhancement,object-names,affective information,pictures,facial expressions},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {185},
  publisher    = {ARRAY(0x8758138)},
  title        = {On the Value of Pictures in Verbal Cognition},
  year         = {2002},
}