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The power-speed relationship is U-shaped in two free-flying hawkmoths (Manduca sexta)

Warfvinge, Kajsa LU ; Klein Heerenbrink, Marco LU and Hedenström, Anders LU (2017) In Journal of the Royal Society Interface 14(134).
Abstract

A flying animal can minimize its energy consumption by choosing an optimal flight speed depending on the task at hand. Choice of flight speed can be predicted by modelling the aerodynamic power required for flight, and this tool has previously been used extensively in bird migration research. For insects, however, it is uncertain whether any of the commonly used power models are useful, as insects often operate in a very different flow regime from vertebrates. To investigate this, we measured aerodynamic power in the wake of two Manduca sexta flying freely in a wind tunnel at 1-3.8 ms-1, using tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV). The expended power was similar in magnitude to that predicted by two classic... (More)

A flying animal can minimize its energy consumption by choosing an optimal flight speed depending on the task at hand. Choice of flight speed can be predicted by modelling the aerodynamic power required for flight, and this tool has previously been used extensively in bird migration research. For insects, however, it is uncertain whether any of the commonly used power models are useful, as insects often operate in a very different flow regime from vertebrates. To investigate this, we measured aerodynamic power in the wake of two Manduca sexta flying freely in a wind tunnel at 1-3.8 ms-1, using tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV). The expended power was similar in magnitude to that predicted by two classic models. However, the most ubiquitously used model, originally intended for vertebrates, failed to predict the sharp increase in power at higher speeds, leading to an overestimate of predicted flight speed during longer flights. In addition to measuring aerodynamic power, the tomo-PIV system yielded a highly detailed visualization of thewake,which proved to be significantly more intricate than could be inferred from previous smoke trail- and two-dimensional-PIV studies.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Aerodynamics, Hawkmoth, Insect, Power, Tomographic particle image velocimetry
in
Journal of the Royal Society Interface
volume
14
issue
134
publisher
Royal Society
external identifiers
  • scopus:85031122344
  • wos:000412164500008
ISSN
1742-5689
DOI
10.1098/rsif.2017.0372
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
09e96d23-80b9-441c-9789-9500c1256f44
date added to LUP
2017-10-27 07:49:26
date last changed
2018-01-16 13:24:34
@article{09e96d23-80b9-441c-9789-9500c1256f44,
  abstract     = {<p>A flying animal can minimize its energy consumption by choosing an optimal flight speed depending on the task at hand. Choice of flight speed can be predicted by modelling the aerodynamic power required for flight, and this tool has previously been used extensively in bird migration research. For insects, however, it is uncertain whether any of the commonly used power models are useful, as insects often operate in a very different flow regime from vertebrates. To investigate this, we measured aerodynamic power in the wake of two Manduca sexta flying freely in a wind tunnel at 1-3.8 ms<sup>-1</sup>, using tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV). The expended power was similar in magnitude to that predicted by two classic models. However, the most ubiquitously used model, originally intended for vertebrates, failed to predict the sharp increase in power at higher speeds, leading to an overestimate of predicted flight speed during longer flights. In addition to measuring aerodynamic power, the tomo-PIV system yielded a highly detailed visualization of thewake,which proved to be significantly more intricate than could be inferred from previous smoke trail- and two-dimensional-PIV studies.</p>},
  articleno    = {20170372},
  author       = {Warfvinge, Kajsa and Klein Heerenbrink, Marco and Hedenström, Anders},
  issn         = {1742-5689},
  keyword      = {Aerodynamics,Hawkmoth,Insect,Power,Tomographic particle image velocimetry},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {09},
  number       = {134},
  publisher    = {Royal Society},
  series       = {Journal of the Royal Society Interface},
  title        = {The power-speed relationship is U-shaped in two free-flying hawkmoths (Manduca sexta)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2017.0372},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2017},
}