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BETWEEN DARING AND DELIBERATING - 3G as a sustainability issue in Swedish spatial planning

Larsson, Stefan LU (2008) In MiSt Report 4
Abstract
The thesis shows how different aspects of sustainable
development have been handled or not
handled in the third generation infrastructure
development in Sweden. The difference between
the design of the 3G development - emphazising
competition, growth and regional access, based on
a strong technological optimism - and the implementation,
as the roll out struck the landscape,
including the non-handled radiation issue and the
legal changes in order to facilitate the roll out, is
discussed and analyzed.

The roll out formally started in late 2000 as the licence
allocation process, the so called beauty contest,
was finished. Four operators were to build
partly competing systems within three years, each
covering 8 860 000... (More)
The thesis shows how different aspects of sustainable
development have been handled or not
handled in the third generation infrastructure
development in Sweden. The difference between
the design of the 3G development - emphazising
competition, growth and regional access, based on
a strong technological optimism - and the implementation,
as the roll out struck the landscape,
including the non-handled radiation issue and the
legal changes in order to facilitate the roll out, is
discussed and analyzed.

The roll out formally started in late 2000 as the licence
allocation process, the so called beauty contest,
was finished. Four operators were to build
partly competing systems within three years, each
covering 8 860 000 persons, more than 99,98
percent of the populated areas. The Post and Telecommunications
Agency can sanction operators
not fulfilling licence conditions by a considerable
fine. The coverage by the end of the period was
between 66 and 74 percent of the promised 8 860
000, with only three remaining operators still participating.
Not until 1 December 2006 did the first
operator report the required coverage, followed
by the two remaining operators by 1 June 2007.
The municipal permit handling was blamed for the
delay, a reason that “could not have been foreseen”,
which helped the operators avoid sanctions
from the PTA. The thesis shows that a slow municipal
permit process can not explain the lack of
coverage in some areas of Sweden.

Environmental aspects were not handled at national
level but assessed locally in the building permit
handling, as well as the regional 12:6 consultations
at the County Administrations. This is why the
municipal permit process holds many of the keys
regarding environmental management and planning.
Therefore the permit processes regarding 3G
masts has been charted as they developed in time
and screened for main issues and conflicts. Public
participation can be found in the local context tied
to the legal concept of being a concerned party
in the permit process, or the 12:6 consultation.
In spite of this, the much debated radiation issue
is lifted from the participative aspects and legally
defined as not relevant.

The theoretical basis of the analysis combines
spatial planning and sociology of law, applying the
sociological concept of norms as entities controlling
action on the discussion of two different paradigms
of governance derived from planning theory.
The thesis project has been a part of a study
within the MiSt programme, an interdisciplinary
research programme on tools for environmental
assessment in strategic decision making funded by
the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

Supervisors: professor Lars Emmelin, School of
Planning, Blekinge Institute of Technology Karsten
Åström, professor in sociology of law, Lund University. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
organization
year
type
Licentiate Thesis
subject
keywords
public participation, the precautionary principle, fear of radiation, strategic decision-making., infrastructure development, sustainable development, sociology of law, spatial planning, sustainability issues, UMTS, 3G
in
MiSt Report 4
pages
179 pages
publisher
Blekinge Institute of Technology
ISSN
1650-2140
ISBN
978-91-7295-132-7
funder
Naturvårdsverket
language
English
LU publication?
yes
additional info
Licentiate thesis in Spatial Planning. The thesis project has been a part of a study within the MiSt programme, an interdisciplinary research programme on tools for environmental assessment in strategic decision making funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
id
1042649
alternative location
http://www.bth.se/fou/Forskinfo.nsf/fdead3e5ec4b0e57c1256690002b940e/3ab1da63bc53db9ac12573fe0051a222/$FILE/Larsson_lic.pdf
references
Articles in daily press
(More)
Articles in daily press
Affärsvärlden (16 Oct 2006) Juridisk långbänk sparade miljarder i 3G-kampen, by Henrik Norberg
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räknar med försenat 3G
Dagens Nyheter (18 April 2004) Nya Lagar ska bereda väg för 3G-utbyggnaden
Dagens Nyheter, by Björn Gillberg, (24 Apr 2004) Systematiska rättsövergrepp för 3G-master

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http://www.pts.se/Nyheter/pressmeddelande.asp?ItemId=747
PTA press release of 11 Feb 2002 Operatörerna klarade UMTS-mätningarna
PTA report PTS-ER-2003:9 (Feb 2003) 3G Network Investments in Sweden. Study for the Post and
Telecommunications Agency, by Björkdahl, Joakim & Bohlin, Erik, IMIT & Chalmers
PTA report, Befolkningstäckning per kommun den 2 maj 2006 baserat på 3G-operatörernas
inrapporterade uppgifter, 8 June 2006
PTA report, Befolkningstäckning per kommun den 31 december 2003 baserat på UMTStillståndshavarnas
inrapporterade uppgifter, 10 April 2004
PTA (12 May 2000) Inbjudan till ansökan om tillstånd att tillhandahålla nätkapacitet för mobila
teletjänster enligt UMTS/IMT-2000 standard samt GSM standard i Sverige
PTA report of 27 June 2001, Tillståndsgivningen för UMTS i Sverige
PTA report of 17 December 2003, UMTS-utbyggnaden – statusrapport
PTA report on coverage 27 Jan 2005
PTA report of 5 June 2006, Bohlin & Strömberg, Utvecklingen av den svenska marknaden för
telekommunikation
PTA report – qualitative research (2 April 2003) 25 kommuner om bygglovshandläggningen av 3Gmaster;
Djupintervjuer med handläggningsansvariga tjänstemän, politiker och näringslivsansvariga,
Temo AB for the PTA
PTA questionnaire (2 April 2003) Kommunerna om bygglovshandläggningen av 3G-master;
Kvantitativ enkät till landets kommuner, Temo AB for the PTA
PTA questionnaire (4 December 2003) Kommunerna om bygglovshandläggningen av 3G-master;
Kvantitativ enkät till landets kommuner, by Temo AB for the PTA
PTS-ER-2002:22 (4 Oct 2002) 3G rollout status, prepared by Northstream for The Swedish National
Post and Telecom Agency
PTSFS 2000:5, Post- och Telestyrelsens föreskrifter om tillstånd att tillhandahålla nätkapacitet för
mobila teletjänster enligt UMTS/IMT-2000-standard respektive GSM-standard (PTSFS 2000:5), 14
April 2000
Strålning från mobiltelesystem. En informationsbroschyr från sex myndigheter, (Dec 2002) Post och
Telestyrelsen, Statens Strålskyddsinstitut, Socialstyrelsen, Arbetsmiljöverket, Elsäkerhetsverket och
Boverket

Web sites
http://iog.ca
http://www.affarsvarlden.se/art/145781
http://www.bth.se/tks/mist_eng.nsf/pages/84edea55a1b523dac1256e7b00316ec3!OpenDocument
http://www.bth.se/tks/mist_eng.nsf
http://www.cdg.org/technology/3g.asp
http://cordis.europa.eu/infowin/acts/analysys/products/thematic/mobile/ev_cellular_sys/ugp1_0.html
http://www.lst.se/lst/en
http://www.ssi.se/ickejoniserande_stralning/Mobiltele/Mobiltele.html?Menu2=Mobiltelefoni
http://www.pts.se/Nyheter/pressmeddelande.asp?ItemId=747
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ETSI (Less)
date added to LUP
2008-03-07 13:37:49
date last changed
2008-11-19 00:15:11
@misc{1042649,
  abstract     = {The thesis shows how different aspects of sustainable
development have been handled or not
handled in the third generation infrastructure
development in Sweden. The difference between
the design of the 3G development - emphazising
competition, growth and regional access, based on
a strong technological optimism - and the implementation,
as the roll out struck the landscape,
including the non-handled radiation issue and the
legal changes in order to facilitate the roll out, is
discussed and analyzed.

The roll out formally started in late 2000 as the licence
allocation process, the so called beauty contest,
was finished. Four operators were to build
partly competing systems within three years, each
covering 8 860 000 persons, more than 99,98
percent of the populated areas. The Post and Telecommunications
Agency can sanction operators
not fulfilling licence conditions by a considerable
fine. The coverage by the end of the period was
between 66 and 74 percent of the promised 8 860
000, with only three remaining operators still participating.
Not until 1 December 2006 did the first
operator report the required coverage, followed
by the two remaining operators by 1 June 2007.
The municipal permit handling was blamed for the
delay, a reason that \textquotedblleft could not have been foreseen\textquotedblright,
which helped the operators avoid sanctions
from the PTA. The thesis shows that a slow municipal
permit process can not explain the lack of
coverage in some areas of Sweden.

Environmental aspects were not handled at national
level but assessed locally in the building permit
handling, as well as the regional 12:6 consultations
at the County Administrations. This is why the
municipal permit process holds many of the keys
regarding environmental management and planning.
Therefore the permit processes regarding 3G
masts has been charted as they developed in time
and screened for main issues and conflicts. Public
participation can be found in the local context tied
to the legal concept of being a concerned party
in the permit process, or the 12:6 consultation.
In spite of this, the much debated radiation issue
is lifted from the participative aspects and legally
defined as not relevant.

The theoretical basis of the analysis combines
spatial planning and sociology of law, applying the
sociological concept of norms as entities controlling
action on the discussion of two different paradigms
of governance derived from planning theory.
The thesis project has been a part of a study
within the MiSt programme, an interdisciplinary
research programme on tools for environmental
assessment in strategic decision making funded by
the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

Supervisors: professor Lars Emmelin, School of
Planning, Blekinge Institute of Technology Karsten
\AA str\"o m, professor in sociology of law, Lund University.},
  author       = {Larsson, Stefan},
  isbn         = {978-91-7295-132-7},
  issn         = {1650-2140},
  keyword      = {public participation,the precautionary principle,fear of radiation,strategic decision-making.,infrastructure development,sustainable development,sociology of law,spatial planning,sustainability issues,UMTS,3G},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Licentiate Thesis},
  pages        = {179},
  publisher    = {Blekinge Institute of Technology},
  series       = {MiSt Report 4},
  title        = {BETWEEN DARING AND DELIBERATING - 3G as a sustainability issue in Swedish spatial planning},
  year         = {2008},
}