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Wartenberg pendulum test: objective quantification of muscle tone in children with spastic diplegia undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy.

Nordmark, Eva LU and Andersson, Gert LU (2002) In Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 44(1). p.26-33
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and sensitivity of the Wartenberg pendulum test for quantification of muscle tone in young children with spastic diplegia undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR). Fourteen nondisabled children (mean age of 5.5 years, age range 2.3 to 8.8 years, one female and one male in each year) were tested twice. Twenty children with spastic diplegia (12 males, eight females; mean age of 4.3 years, age range 2.5 to 6.3 years) consecutively selected for SDR, were assessed before and 6 months after SDR. Parameters of the pendulum test: R2, R1, maximal velocity, and swing time were correlated with clinical assessments for spasticity (modified Ashworth scale, quadriceps reflex) and measurements... (More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and sensitivity of the Wartenberg pendulum test for quantification of muscle tone in young children with spastic diplegia undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR). Fourteen nondisabled children (mean age of 5.5 years, age range 2.3 to 8.8 years, one female and one male in each year) were tested twice. Twenty children with spastic diplegia (12 males, eight females; mean age of 4.3 years, age range 2.5 to 6.3 years) consecutively selected for SDR, were assessed before and 6 months after SDR. Parameters of the pendulum test: R2, R1, maximal velocity, and swing time were correlated with clinical assessments for spasticity (modified Ashworth scale, quadriceps reflex) and measurements of gross motor function: the Gross Motor Function Classification System and the Gross Motor Function Measure. The Wartenberg pendulum test was found to be an objective and sensitive method for quantifying spasticity in knee extensor muscles in children as young as 2.5 years old. The method was responsive to changes after SDR. The only correlation with clinical measurements of spasticity was between the R2 ratio and the quadriceps reflex. Swing time was the most reliable and sensitive variable; it showed a weak correlation with measurements for gross motor function. (Less)
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organization
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Contribution to journal
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published
subject
keywords
Preschool, Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological, Female, Ganglia, Spinal/surgery, Human, Infant, Knee Joint/*physiology, Male, Movement, Muscle, Skeletal/physiology, Reproducibility of Results, Predictive Value of Tests, Sensitivity and Specificity, *Rhizotomy, Child, Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Treatment Outcome, Cerebral Palsy/classification/pathology/*surgery
in
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
volume
44
issue
1
pages
26 - 33
publisher
John Wiley & Sons
external identifiers
  • wos:000173138000004
  • pmid:11811646
  • scopus:0036143846
ISSN
0012-1622
DOI
10.1111/j.1469-8749.2002.tb00255.x
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
a7cfedd8-abc3-4c4b-9c41-13cf2d0ea5dd (old id 106443)
date added to LUP
2007-07-05 12:05:51
date last changed
2017-08-27 04:27:12
@article{a7cfedd8-abc3-4c4b-9c41-13cf2d0ea5dd,
  abstract     = {The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and sensitivity of the Wartenberg pendulum test for quantification of muscle tone in young children with spastic diplegia undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR). Fourteen nondisabled children (mean age of 5.5 years, age range 2.3 to 8.8 years, one female and one male in each year) were tested twice. Twenty children with spastic diplegia (12 males, eight females; mean age of 4.3 years, age range 2.5 to 6.3 years) consecutively selected for SDR, were assessed before and 6 months after SDR. Parameters of the pendulum test: R2, R1, maximal velocity, and swing time were correlated with clinical assessments for spasticity (modified Ashworth scale, quadriceps reflex) and measurements of gross motor function: the Gross Motor Function Classification System and the Gross Motor Function Measure. The Wartenberg pendulum test was found to be an objective and sensitive method for quantifying spasticity in knee extensor muscles in children as young as 2.5 years old. The method was responsive to changes after SDR. The only correlation with clinical measurements of spasticity was between the R2 ratio and the quadriceps reflex. Swing time was the most reliable and sensitive variable; it showed a weak correlation with measurements for gross motor function.},
  author       = {Nordmark, Eva and Andersson, Gert},
  issn         = {0012-1622},
  keyword      = {Preschool,Diagnostic Techniques,Neurological,Female,Ganglia,Spinal/surgery,Human,Infant,Knee Joint/*physiology,Male,Movement,Muscle,Skeletal/physiology,Reproducibility of Results,Predictive Value of Tests,Sensitivity and Specificity,*Rhizotomy,Child,Support,Non-U.S. Gov't,Treatment Outcome,Cerebral Palsy/classification/pathology/*surgery},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {26--33},
  publisher    = {John Wiley & Sons},
  series       = {Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology},
  title        = {Wartenberg pendulum test: objective quantification of muscle tone in children with spastic diplegia undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2002.tb00255.x},
  volume       = {44},
  year         = {2002},
}