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Dietary and genetic risk scores and incidence of type 2 diabetes

Ericson, Ulrika LU ; Hindy, George LU ; Drake, Isabel LU ; Schulz, Christina Alexandra LU ; Brunkwall, Louise LU ; Hellstrand, Sophie LU ; Almgren, Peter LU and Orho-Melander, Marju LU (2018) In Genes and Nutrition 13(1).
Abstract

Background: Both lifestyle and genetic predisposition determine the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and studies have indicated interactions between specific dietary components and individual genetic variants. However, it is unclear whether the importance of overall dietary habits, including T2D-related food intakes, differs depending on genetic predisposition to T2D. We examined interaction between a genetic risk score for T2D, constructed from 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies, and a diet risk score of four foods consistently associated with T2D in epidemiological studies (processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, whole grain and coffee). In total, 25,069 individuals aged 45-74... (More)

Background: Both lifestyle and genetic predisposition determine the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and studies have indicated interactions between specific dietary components and individual genetic variants. However, it is unclear whether the importance of overall dietary habits, including T2D-related food intakes, differs depending on genetic predisposition to T2D. We examined interaction between a genetic risk score for T2D, constructed from 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies, and a diet risk score of four foods consistently associated with T2D in epidemiological studies (processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, whole grain and coffee). In total, 25,069 individuals aged 45-74 years with genotype information and without prevalent diabetes from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (1991-1996) were included. Diet data were collected with a modified diet history method. Results: During 17-year follow-up, 3588 incident T2D cases were identified. Both the diet risk score (HR in the highest risk category 1.40; 95% CI 1.26, 1.58; P trend=6×10-10) and the genetic risk score (HR in the highest tertile of the genetic risk score 1.67; 95% CI 1.54, 1.81; P trend=7×10-35) were associated with increased incidence of T2D. No significant interaction between the genetic risk score and the diet risk score (P=0.83) or its food components was observed. The highest risk was seen among the 6% of the individuals with both high genetic and dietary risk scores (HR 2.49; 95% CI 2.06, 3.01). Conclusions: The findings thus show that both genetic heredity and dietary habits previously associated with T2D add to the risk of T2D, but they seem to act in an independent fashion, with the consequence that all individuals, whether at high or low genetic risk, would benefit from favourable food choices.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Cohort study, Diet, Food intake, Gene-environment interactions, Type 2 diabetes
in
Genes and Nutrition
volume
13
issue
1
publisher
New Century Health Publishers
external identifiers
  • scopus:85047056685
ISSN
1555-8932
DOI
10.1186/s12263-018-0599-1
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
10c6430e-79e4-4538-8ae2-0a460e6cdd0d
date added to LUP
2018-05-29 15:14:58
date last changed
2019-01-27 05:28:24
@article{10c6430e-79e4-4538-8ae2-0a460e6cdd0d,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Both lifestyle and genetic predisposition determine the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and studies have indicated interactions between specific dietary components and individual genetic variants. However, it is unclear whether the importance of overall dietary habits, including T2D-related food intakes, differs depending on genetic predisposition to T2D. We examined interaction between a genetic risk score for T2D, constructed from 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies, and a diet risk score of four foods consistently associated with T2D in epidemiological studies (processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, whole grain and coffee). In total, 25,069 individuals aged 45-74 years with genotype information and without prevalent diabetes from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (1991-1996) were included. Diet data were collected with a modified diet history method. Results: During 17-year follow-up, 3588 incident T2D cases were identified. Both the diet risk score (HR in the highest risk category 1.40; 95% CI 1.26, 1.58; P trend=6×10<sup>-10</sup>) and the genetic risk score (HR in the highest tertile of the genetic risk score 1.67; 95% CI 1.54, 1.81; P trend=7×10<sup>-35</sup>) were associated with increased incidence of T2D. No significant interaction between the genetic risk score and the diet risk score (P=0.83) or its food components was observed. The highest risk was seen among the 6% of the individuals with both high genetic and dietary risk scores (HR 2.49; 95% CI 2.06, 3.01). Conclusions: The findings thus show that both genetic heredity and dietary habits previously associated with T2D add to the risk of T2D, but they seem to act in an independent fashion, with the consequence that all individuals, whether at high or low genetic risk, would benefit from favourable food choices.</p>},
  articleno    = {13},
  author       = {Ericson, Ulrika and Hindy, George and Drake, Isabel and Schulz, Christina Alexandra and Brunkwall, Louise and Hellstrand, Sophie and Almgren, Peter and Orho-Melander, Marju},
  issn         = {1555-8932},
  keyword      = {Cohort study,Diet,Food intake,Gene-environment interactions,Type 2 diabetes},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {05},
  number       = {1},
  publisher    = {New Century Health Publishers},
  series       = {Genes and Nutrition},
  title        = {Dietary and genetic risk scores and incidence of type 2 diabetes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12263-018-0599-1},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2018},
}