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Free radical production and ischemic brain damage: influence of postischemic oxygen tension

Agardh, Carl-David LU ; Zhang, H; Smith, Maj-Lis LU and Siesjö, Bo LU (1991) In International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 9(2). p.127-138
Abstract
It is now becoming increasingly clear that free radicals contribute to brain damage in several conditions, such as hyperoxia and trauma. It has been more difficult to prove that free radical production mediates ischemic brain damage, but it has often been suggested that it may be a major contributor to reperfusion damage, observed following transient ischemia. Recent results demonstrate that cerebral ischemia of long duration, particularly when followed by reperfusion, leads to enhanced production of partially reduced oxygen species, notably hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). It has also been suggested that postischemic hyperoxia, e.g. an increased oxygen tension during the recirculation period, adversely affects recovery following transient... (More)
It is now becoming increasingly clear that free radicals contribute to brain damage in several conditions, such as hyperoxia and trauma. It has been more difficult to prove that free radical production mediates ischemic brain damage, but it has often been suggested that it may be a major contributor to reperfusion damage, observed following transient ischemia. Recent results demonstrate that cerebral ischemia of long duration, particularly when followed by reperfusion, leads to enhanced production of partially reduced oxygen species, notably hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). It has also been suggested that postischemic hyperoxia, e.g. an increased oxygen tension during the recirculation period, adversely affects recovery following transient ischemia. Other data support the notion that brain damage caused by permanent ischemia (stroke) is significantly influenced by production of free radicals. The present study, however, fails to show that recirculation following brief periods of ischemia (15 min) leads to an enhanced H2O2 production, and that hyperoxia aggravates the ischemic damage.



This study was undertaken to reveal whether variations in oxygen supply in the postischemic period following forebrain ischemia in rats affect free radical production and the brain damage incurred. To that end, rats ventilated on N2O/O2 (70:30) were subjected to 15 min of transient ischemia. Normoxic animals were ventilated with the N2O/O2 mixture, hyperoxic animals with 100% O2, and hypoxic ones with about 10% O2 (balance either N2O/N2 or N2) during the recirculation. At the end of this period, the animals were decapitated for assessment of H2O2 production with the aminotriazole/catalase method. This method is based on the notion that aminotriazole interacts with H2O2 to inactivate catalase; thus, the rate of inactivation of catalase in aminotriazole treated animals reflects H2O2 production. In a parallel series, animals ventilated with one of the three gas mixtures in the early recirculation period, respectively, were allowed to recover for 7 days, with subsequent perfusion-fixation of brain tissues and light microscopical evaluation of the brain damage.



Animals given aminotriazole, whether rendered ischemic or not, showed a reduced tissue catalase activity, reflecting H2O2 production in the brain. Hyperoxic animals failed to show increased tissue H2O2 production, while hypoxic ones showed a tendency towards decreased production. However, all three groups (hypo, normo- and hyperoxic) had similar density and distribution of neuronal damage. These results suggest that although postischemic oxygen tensions may determine the rates of H2O2 production, variations in oxygen tensions do not influence the final brain damage incurred.



In conclusion, there was thus no indication that variations in the postischemic oxygen supply altered production of free radicals, or modulated the damage incurred as a result of the ischemia. We conclude that free radical production may not be an important factor in the pathogenesis of brain damage following brief periods of ischemia, but may represent an important modulator following longer periods of ischemia, when a vascular component becomes an important factor in the pathological events. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
cerebral ischemia, recirculation, oxygen tension, free radicals, hydrogen peroxide, catalase activity
in
International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
volume
9
issue
2
pages
127 - 138
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • pmid:2058415
  • scopus:0026101695
ISSN
1873-474X
DOI
10.1016/0736-5748(91)90003-5
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
0bc6e046-5ac0-48f0-9dfd-e697c832c4ea (old id 1105894)
date added to LUP
2008-08-04 13:54:22
date last changed
2017-08-06 03:38:50
@article{0bc6e046-5ac0-48f0-9dfd-e697c832c4ea,
  abstract     = {It is now becoming increasingly clear that free radicals contribute to brain damage in several conditions, such as hyperoxia and trauma. It has been more difficult to prove that free radical production mediates ischemic brain damage, but it has often been suggested that it may be a major contributor to reperfusion damage, observed following transient ischemia. Recent results demonstrate that cerebral ischemia of long duration, particularly when followed by reperfusion, leads to enhanced production of partially reduced oxygen species, notably hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). It has also been suggested that postischemic hyperoxia, e.g. an increased oxygen tension during the recirculation period, adversely affects recovery following transient ischemia. Other data support the notion that brain damage caused by permanent ischemia (stroke) is significantly influenced by production of free radicals. The present study, however, fails to show that recirculation following brief periods of ischemia (15 min) leads to an enhanced H2O2 production, and that hyperoxia aggravates the ischemic damage.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
This study was undertaken to reveal whether variations in oxygen supply in the postischemic period following forebrain ischemia in rats affect free radical production and the brain damage incurred. To that end, rats ventilated on N2O/O2 (70:30) were subjected to 15 min of transient ischemia. Normoxic animals were ventilated with the N2O/O2 mixture, hyperoxic animals with 100% O2, and hypoxic ones with about 10% O2 (balance either N2O/N2 or N2) during the recirculation. At the end of this period, the animals were decapitated for assessment of H2O2 production with the aminotriazole/catalase method. This method is based on the notion that aminotriazole interacts with H2O2 to inactivate catalase; thus, the rate of inactivation of catalase in aminotriazole treated animals reflects H2O2 production. In a parallel series, animals ventilated with one of the three gas mixtures in the early recirculation period, respectively, were allowed to recover for 7 days, with subsequent perfusion-fixation of brain tissues and light microscopical evaluation of the brain damage.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Animals given aminotriazole, whether rendered ischemic or not, showed a reduced tissue catalase activity, reflecting H2O2 production in the brain. Hyperoxic animals failed to show increased tissue H2O2 production, while hypoxic ones showed a tendency towards decreased production. However, all three groups (hypo, normo- and hyperoxic) had similar density and distribution of neuronal damage. These results suggest that although postischemic oxygen tensions may determine the rates of H2O2 production, variations in oxygen tensions do not influence the final brain damage incurred.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In conclusion, there was thus no indication that variations in the postischemic oxygen supply altered production of free radicals, or modulated the damage incurred as a result of the ischemia. We conclude that free radical production may not be an important factor in the pathogenesis of brain damage following brief periods of ischemia, but may represent an important modulator following longer periods of ischemia, when a vascular component becomes an important factor in the pathological events.},
  author       = {Agardh, Carl-David and Zhang, H and Smith, Maj-Lis and Siesjö, Bo},
  issn         = {1873-474X},
  keyword      = {cerebral ischemia,recirculation,oxygen tension,free radicals,hydrogen peroxide,catalase activity},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {127--138},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience},
  title        = {Free radical production and ischemic brain damage: influence of postischemic oxygen tension},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0736-5748(91)90003-5},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {1991},
}