Advanced

Coagulation and anticoagulation effects of contraceptive steroids

Samsioe, Göran LU (1994) In American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 170(5 Pt 2). p.1523-1527
Abstract
PIP: The first generation high-dose ( 80 mcg estrogen) oral contraceptives (OCs) were associated with an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). So manufacturers removed the high-dose OCs and first replaced them with OCs with 50 mcg estrogen, resulting in a lower incidence of thromboembolic events (40 vs. 20/100,000 users). When they introduced an even lower dose OC (30 mcg estrogen), the incidence fell further (about 8/100,000 users). Yet, women using the lowest-dose OCs still have DVT more often than do control women. Life-style, age, and smoking may be confounding factors, however. It is not clear whether loss of endogenous ovarian steroid production or the effects of the orally administered contraceptive steroids cause... (More)
PIP: The first generation high-dose ( 80 mcg estrogen) oral contraceptives (OCs) were associated with an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). So manufacturers removed the high-dose OCs and first replaced them with OCs with 50 mcg estrogen, resulting in a lower incidence of thromboembolic events (40 vs. 20/100,000 users). When they introduced an even lower dose OC (30 mcg estrogen), the incidence fell further (about 8/100,000 users). Yet, women using the lowest-dose OCs still have DVT more often than do control women. Life-style, age, and smoking may be confounding factors, however. It is not clear whether loss of endogenous ovarian steroid production or the effects of the orally administered contraceptive steroids cause significant changes in hemostatic factors (antithrombin III, protein S, protein C, plasminogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, histidine-rich glycoprotein, and VII, VIII, X, XII coagulation factors) during OC use. These changes tend to be within normal ranges. There is some doubt that these changes have any clinical significance. In nonsmokers, increased activity of anticoagulant factors and fibrinolytic factors counteract the effects on coagulation factors. Progestin-only OCs appear to affect hemostasis but have not increased the risk of thrombosis. There are considerable differences between people in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of contraceptive steroids. These differences may account for the increased risk of thromboembolic events in some people. Further research should identify methods of individualizing the dose of contraceptive steroids for a single patient. It should also explore the close interrelationship between hemostasis and lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and hypertension in the development of cardiovascular disease in OC users. Providers should discourage women with a past history of DVT from using hormonal contraception. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
volume
170
issue
5 Pt 2
pages
1523 - 1527
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • pmid:8178901
  • scopus:0028228135
ISSN
1097-6868
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
364ee598-6ae8-4bed-88d5-7b22e8bfbd1e (old id 1108568)
date added to LUP
2008-07-24 13:13:32
date last changed
2017-01-01 04:41:44
@article{364ee598-6ae8-4bed-88d5-7b22e8bfbd1e,
  abstract     = {PIP: The first generation high-dose ( 80 mcg estrogen) oral contraceptives (OCs) were associated with an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). So manufacturers removed the high-dose OCs and first replaced them with OCs with 50 mcg estrogen, resulting in a lower incidence of thromboembolic events (40 vs. 20/100,000 users). When they introduced an even lower dose OC (30 mcg estrogen), the incidence fell further (about 8/100,000 users). Yet, women using the lowest-dose OCs still have DVT more often than do control women. Life-style, age, and smoking may be confounding factors, however. It is not clear whether loss of endogenous ovarian steroid production or the effects of the orally administered contraceptive steroids cause significant changes in hemostatic factors (antithrombin III, protein S, protein C, plasminogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, histidine-rich glycoprotein, and VII, VIII, X, XII coagulation factors) during OC use. These changes tend to be within normal ranges. There is some doubt that these changes have any clinical significance. In nonsmokers, increased activity of anticoagulant factors and fibrinolytic factors counteract the effects on coagulation factors. Progestin-only OCs appear to affect hemostasis but have not increased the risk of thrombosis. There are considerable differences between people in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of contraceptive steroids. These differences may account for the increased risk of thromboembolic events in some people. Further research should identify methods of individualizing the dose of contraceptive steroids for a single patient. It should also explore the close interrelationship between hemostasis and lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and hypertension in the development of cardiovascular disease in OC users. Providers should discourage women with a past history of DVT from using hormonal contraception.},
  author       = {Samsioe, Göran},
  issn         = {1097-6868},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5 Pt 2},
  pages        = {1523--1527},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology},
  title        = {Coagulation and anticoagulation effects of contraceptive steroids},
  volume       = {170},
  year         = {1994},
}