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Amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal segment of cystatin C create selective inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteinases

Mason, R W; Sol-Church, K and Abrahamson, Magnus LU (1998) In Biochemical Journal 330(2). p.833-838
Abstract
We used site-directed mutagenesis to alter the specificity of human cystatin C, an inhibitor with a broad reactivity against cysteine proteinases. Nine cystatin C variants containing amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal (L9W, V10W, V10F and V10R) and/or the C-terminal (W106G) enzyme-binding regions were designed and produced in Escherichia coli. It was discovered that the inhibition profile of the cystatin could be altered by changing residues 9 and 10, which are proposed to bind in the S3 and S2 substrate-binding pockets respectively of the enzymes. All of the variants with substitutions in the N-terminal segment displayed decreased binding to cathepsins B and H, indicating that the S3 and S2 pockets of these enzymes cannot easily... (More)
We used site-directed mutagenesis to alter the specificity of human cystatin C, an inhibitor with a broad reactivity against cysteine proteinases. Nine cystatin C variants containing amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal (L9W, V10W, V10F and V10R) and/or the C-terminal (W106G) enzyme-binding regions were designed and produced in Escherichia coli. It was discovered that the inhibition profile of the cystatin could be altered by changing residues 9 and 10, which are proposed to bind in the S3 and S2 substrate-binding pockets respectively of the enzymes. All of the variants with substitutions in the N-terminal segment displayed decreased binding to cathepsins B and H, indicating that the S3 and S2 pockets of these enzymes cannot easily accommodate large aromatic residues. The introduction of a charged residue into S2 (variant V10R) created a more specific inhibitor to distinguish cathepsin B from cathepsin H. Cathepsin L showed a preference for larger aromatic residues in S2. In contrast, cathepsin S preferred phenylalanine to valine in S2, but bound less tightly to the V10W cystatin variant. The latter variant proved to be valuable for discriminating between cathepsin L and cathepsin S (Ki 2.4 and 190 pM respectively). The equilibrium dissociation constant of the complex between cathepsin L and variant L9W/W106G showed little difference in affinity from that of the cathepsin L complex with the singly substituted W106G variant. In contrast, the L9W/W106G variant displayed increased specificity for cathepsin S with a Ki of 10 pM. Our results clearly indicate differences in the specificity of interaction between the N-terminal region of cystatin C and cathepsins B, H, L and S, and that, although cystatin C has evolved to be a good inhibitor of all of the mammalian cysteine proteinases, more specific inhibitors of the individual enzymes can be engineered. (Less)
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Biochemical Journal
volume
330
issue
2
pages
833 - 838
publisher
Portland Press Limited
ISSN
0264-6021
language
English
LU publication?
yes
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ef979dfa-858f-4036-91cf-14ffd9f6777c (old id 1113862)
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http://www.biochemj.org/bj/330/0833/bj3300833.htm
date added to LUP
2008-07-16 12:47:41
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2016-04-16 03:21:46
@article{ef979dfa-858f-4036-91cf-14ffd9f6777c,
  abstract     = {We used site-directed mutagenesis to alter the specificity of human cystatin C, an inhibitor with a broad reactivity against cysteine proteinases. Nine cystatin C variants containing amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal (L9W, V10W, V10F and V10R) and/or the C-terminal (W106G) enzyme-binding regions were designed and produced in Escherichia coli. It was discovered that the inhibition profile of the cystatin could be altered by changing residues 9 and 10, which are proposed to bind in the S3 and S2 substrate-binding pockets respectively of the enzymes. All of the variants with substitutions in the N-terminal segment displayed decreased binding to cathepsins B and H, indicating that the S3 and S2 pockets of these enzymes cannot easily accommodate large aromatic residues. The introduction of a charged residue into S2 (variant V10R) created a more specific inhibitor to distinguish cathepsin B from cathepsin H. Cathepsin L showed a preference for larger aromatic residues in S2. In contrast, cathepsin S preferred phenylalanine to valine in S2, but bound less tightly to the V10W cystatin variant. The latter variant proved to be valuable for discriminating between cathepsin L and cathepsin S (Ki 2.4 and 190 pM respectively). The equilibrium dissociation constant of the complex between cathepsin L and variant L9W/W106G showed little difference in affinity from that of the cathepsin L complex with the singly substituted W106G variant. In contrast, the L9W/W106G variant displayed increased specificity for cathepsin S with a Ki of 10 pM. Our results clearly indicate differences in the specificity of interaction between the N-terminal region of cystatin C and cathepsins B, H, L and S, and that, although cystatin C has evolved to be a good inhibitor of all of the mammalian cysteine proteinases, more specific inhibitors of the individual enzymes can be engineered.},
  author       = {Mason, R W and Sol-Church, K and Abrahamson, Magnus},
  issn         = {0264-6021},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {833--838},
  publisher    = {Portland Press Limited},
  series       = {Biochemical Journal},
  title        = {Amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal segment of cystatin C create selective inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine proteinases},
  volume       = {330},
  year         = {1998},
}