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Pregnancy and lactation confer reversible bone loss in humans

Karlsson, Caroline LU ; Obrant, Karl LU and Karlsson, M (2001) In Osteoporosis International 12(10). p.828-834
Abstract
The influence of pregnancy on bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 73 women (mean age 29 years, range 20-44 years) postpartum. Fifty-five age-matched women served as controls. The influence of lactation was evaluated in 65 of the delivered women who were followed with repeated measurements, a mean of 4.5 +/- 0.1 and 11.5 +/- 0.1 months after the delivery. The influence of multiple pregnancies was evaluated in 39 premenopausal women (mean age 38 years, range 31-54 years) with a minimum of four pregnancies (range 4-7). Fifty-eight age-matched healthy premenopausal women with a maximum of two pregnancies (range 0-2) served as controls. Data are presented as mean +/- SEM. BMD data are adjusted... (More)
The influence of pregnancy on bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 73 women (mean age 29 years, range 20-44 years) postpartum. Fifty-five age-matched women served as controls. The influence of lactation was evaluated in 65 of the delivered women who were followed with repeated measurements, a mean of 4.5 +/- 0.1 and 11.5 +/- 0.1 months after the delivery. The influence of multiple pregnancies was evaluated in 39 premenopausal women (mean age 38 years, range 31-54 years) with a minimum of four pregnancies (range 4-7). Fifty-eight age-matched healthy premenopausal women with a maximum of two pregnancies (range 0-2) served as controls. Data are presented as mean +/- SEM. BMD data are adjusted for differences in total fat mass and total lean mass. Lumbar spine BMD was 7.6 +/- 0.1% and total body BMD 3.9 +/- 0.1% lower in women postpartum compared with controls (both p<0.001). BMD did not decrease significantly in non-breastfeeding mothers. Mothers breastfeeding for 1-6 months decreased femoral neck BMD by 2.0 +/- 1.0% during the first 5 months postpartum (p<0.001). No further BMD loss was seen between 5 and 12 months postpartum. Femoral neck BMD 12 months after delivery was 1.3 +/- 0.8% lower than after delivery in mothers breastfeeding for 1-6 months (p = 0.05). Mothers breastfeeding for more than 6 months decreased Ward's triangle BMD by 8.5 +/- 1.0% and lumbar spine BMD by 4.1 +/- 0.8% during the first 5 months postpartum (both p<0.05). No further BMD loss was seen between 5 and 12 months postpartum. Femoral neck BMD 12 months after delivery was 4.0 +/- 1.1% lower and Ward's triangle BMD 5.3 +/- 1.9% lower than after delivery in mothers breastfeeding for more than 6 months (both p<0.05). BMD loss was higher during the first 5 months following delivery in the lactating women compared with the non-lactating women (p<0.05 comparing lumbar spine BMD loss in lactating mothers versus non-lactating mothers). However, in women with a minimum of four pregnancies the BMD was no lower than in age-matched women with fewer pregnancies. Total duration of lactation was not correlated with the present BMD. In summary, pregnancy seem to confer a low BMD with additional BMD loss during 5 months of lactation. Even if complete restoration in BMD was not reached within 5 months of weaning, women with four pregnancies or more had a BMD no lower than women with two pregnancies or fewer. We conclude that neither an extended lactation period nor multiple pregnancies could be used as a risk factor when predicting women at risk for future osteoporosis. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Lactation, DXA, Bone mineral density, Pregnancy, Multiparity
in
Osteoporosis International
volume
12
issue
10
pages
828 - 834
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • pmid:11716185
  • scopus:0035189583
ISSN
1433-2965
DOI
10.1007/s001980170033
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f64f6d02-6e4a-4c5c-926e-81751724fda8 (old id 1121539)
date added to LUP
2008-07-01 11:22:04
date last changed
2018-03-18 04:31:06
@article{f64f6d02-6e4a-4c5c-926e-81751724fda8,
  abstract     = {The influence of pregnancy on bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 73 women (mean age 29 years, range 20-44 years) postpartum. Fifty-five age-matched women served as controls. The influence of lactation was evaluated in 65 of the delivered women who were followed with repeated measurements, a mean of 4.5 +/- 0.1 and 11.5 +/- 0.1 months after the delivery. The influence of multiple pregnancies was evaluated in 39 premenopausal women (mean age 38 years, range 31-54 years) with a minimum of four pregnancies (range 4-7). Fifty-eight age-matched healthy premenopausal women with a maximum of two pregnancies (range 0-2) served as controls. Data are presented as mean +/- SEM. BMD data are adjusted for differences in total fat mass and total lean mass. Lumbar spine BMD was 7.6 +/- 0.1% and total body BMD 3.9 +/- 0.1% lower in women postpartum compared with controls (both p&lt;0.001). BMD did not decrease significantly in non-breastfeeding mothers. Mothers breastfeeding for 1-6 months decreased femoral neck BMD by 2.0 +/- 1.0% during the first 5 months postpartum (p&lt;0.001). No further BMD loss was seen between 5 and 12 months postpartum. Femoral neck BMD 12 months after delivery was 1.3 +/- 0.8% lower than after delivery in mothers breastfeeding for 1-6 months (p = 0.05). Mothers breastfeeding for more than 6 months decreased Ward's triangle BMD by 8.5 +/- 1.0% and lumbar spine BMD by 4.1 +/- 0.8% during the first 5 months postpartum (both p&lt;0.05). No further BMD loss was seen between 5 and 12 months postpartum. Femoral neck BMD 12 months after delivery was 4.0 +/- 1.1% lower and Ward's triangle BMD 5.3 +/- 1.9% lower than after delivery in mothers breastfeeding for more than 6 months (both p&lt;0.05). BMD loss was higher during the first 5 months following delivery in the lactating women compared with the non-lactating women (p&lt;0.05 comparing lumbar spine BMD loss in lactating mothers versus non-lactating mothers). However, in women with a minimum of four pregnancies the BMD was no lower than in age-matched women with fewer pregnancies. Total duration of lactation was not correlated with the present BMD. In summary, pregnancy seem to confer a low BMD with additional BMD loss during 5 months of lactation. Even if complete restoration in BMD was not reached within 5 months of weaning, women with four pregnancies or more had a BMD no lower than women with two pregnancies or fewer. We conclude that neither an extended lactation period nor multiple pregnancies could be used as a risk factor when predicting women at risk for future osteoporosis.},
  author       = {Karlsson, Caroline and Obrant, Karl and Karlsson, M},
  issn         = {1433-2965},
  keyword      = {Lactation,DXA,Bone mineral density,Pregnancy,Multiparity},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {828--834},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Osteoporosis International},
  title        = {Pregnancy and lactation confer reversible bone loss in humans},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001980170033},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2001},
}