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100 ancient genomes show repeated population turnovers in Neolithic Denmark

Allentoft, Morten E. ; Sikora, Martin ; Fischer, Anders ; Sjögren, Karl Göran ; Ingason, Andrés ; Macleod, Ruairidh ; Rosengren, Anders ; Schulz Paulsson, Bettina ; Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup and Novosolov, Maria , et al. (2024) In Nature 625(7994). p.329-337
Abstract

Major migration events in Holocene Eurasia have been characterized genetically at broad regional scales1–4. However, insights into the population dynamics in the contact zones are hampered by a lack of ancient genomic data sampled at high spatiotemporal resolution5–7. Here, to address this, we analysed shotgun-sequenced genomes from 100 skeletons spanning 7,300 years of the Mesolithic period, Neolithic period and Early Bronze Age in Denmark and integrated these with proxies for diet (13C and 15N content), mobility (87Sr/86Sr ratio) and vegetation cover (pollen). We observe that Danish Mesolithic individuals of the Maglemose, Kongemose and Ertebølle cultures form a... (More)

Major migration events in Holocene Eurasia have been characterized genetically at broad regional scales1–4. However, insights into the population dynamics in the contact zones are hampered by a lack of ancient genomic data sampled at high spatiotemporal resolution5–7. Here, to address this, we analysed shotgun-sequenced genomes from 100 skeletons spanning 7,300 years of the Mesolithic period, Neolithic period and Early Bronze Age in Denmark and integrated these with proxies for diet (13C and 15N content), mobility (87Sr/86Sr ratio) and vegetation cover (pollen). We observe that Danish Mesolithic individuals of the Maglemose, Kongemose and Ertebølle cultures form a distinct genetic cluster related to other Western European hunter-gatherers. Despite shifts in material culture they displayed genetic homogeneity from around 10,500 to 5,900 calibrated years before present, when Neolithic farmers with Anatolian-derived ancestry arrived. Although the Neolithic transition was delayed by more than a millennium relative to Central Europe, it was very abrupt and resulted in a population turnover with limited genetic contribution from local hunter-gatherers. The succeeding Neolithic population, associated with the Funnel Beaker culture, persisted for only about 1,000 years before immigrants with eastern Steppe-derived ancestry arrived. This second and equally rapid population replacement gave rise to the Single Grave culture with an ancestry profile more similar to present-day Danes. In our multiproxy dataset, these major demographic events are manifested as parallel shifts in genotype, phenotype, diet and land use.

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organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Ancient DNA, Pollen analysis
in
Nature
volume
625
issue
7994
pages
9 pages
publisher
Nature Publishing Group
external identifiers
  • scopus:85181852344
  • pmid:38200294
ISSN
0028-0836
DOI
10.1038/s41586-023-06862-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
114cf14b-5573-4b95-8b4b-77e909a88c1c
date added to LUP
2024-01-23 18:13:22
date last changed
2024-04-09 13:37:35
@article{114cf14b-5573-4b95-8b4b-77e909a88c1c,
  abstract     = {{<p>Major migration events in Holocene Eurasia have been characterized genetically at broad regional scales<sup>1–4</sup>. However, insights into the population dynamics in the contact zones are hampered by a lack of ancient genomic data sampled at high spatiotemporal resolution<sup>5–7</sup>. Here, to address this, we analysed shotgun-sequenced genomes from 100 skeletons spanning 7,300 years of the Mesolithic period, Neolithic period and Early Bronze Age in Denmark and integrated these with proxies for diet (<sup>13</sup>C and <sup>15</sup>N content), mobility (<sup>87</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr ratio) and vegetation cover (pollen). We observe that Danish Mesolithic individuals of the Maglemose, Kongemose and Ertebølle cultures form a distinct genetic cluster related to other Western European hunter-gatherers. Despite shifts in material culture they displayed genetic homogeneity from around 10,500 to 5,900 calibrated years before present, when Neolithic farmers with Anatolian-derived ancestry arrived. Although the Neolithic transition was delayed by more than a millennium relative to Central Europe, it was very abrupt and resulted in a population turnover with limited genetic contribution from local hunter-gatherers. The succeeding Neolithic population, associated with the Funnel Beaker culture, persisted for only about 1,000 years before immigrants with eastern Steppe-derived ancestry arrived. This second and equally rapid population replacement gave rise to the Single Grave culture with an ancestry profile more similar to present-day Danes. In our multiproxy dataset, these major demographic events are manifested as parallel shifts in genotype, phenotype, diet and land use.</p>}},
  author       = {{Allentoft, Morten E. and Sikora, Martin and Fischer, Anders and Sjögren, Karl Göran and Ingason, Andrés and Macleod, Ruairidh and Rosengren, Anders and Schulz Paulsson, Bettina and Jørkov, Marie Louise Schjellerup and Novosolov, Maria and Stenderup, Jesper and Price, T. Douglas and Fischer Mortensen, Morten and Nielsen, Anne Birgitte and Ulfeldt Hede, Mikkel and Sørensen, Lasse and Nielsen, Poul Otto and Rasmussen, Peter and Jensen, Theis Zetner Trolle and Refoyo-Martínez, Alba and Irving-Pease, Evan K. and Barrie, William and Pearson, Alice and Sousa da Mota, Bárbara and Demeter, Fabrice and Henriksen, Rasmus A. and Vimala, Tharsika and McColl, Hugh and Vaughn, Andrew and Vinner, Lasse and Renaud, Gabriel and Stern, Aaron and Johannsen, Niels Nørkjær and Ramsøe, Abigail Daisy and Schork, Andrew Joseph and Ruter, Anthony and Gotfredsen, Anne Birgitte and Henning Nielsen, Bjarne and Brinch Petersen, Erik and Kannegaard, Esben and Hansen, Jesper and Buck Pedersen, Kristoffer and Pedersen, Lisbeth and Klassen, Lutz and Meldgaard, Morten and Johansen, Morten and Uldum, Otto Christian and Lotz, Per and Lysdahl, Per and Bangsgaard, Pernille and Petersen, Peter Vang and Maring, Rikke and Iversen, Rune and Wåhlin, Sidsel and Anker Sørensen, Søren and Andersen, Søren H. and Jørgensen, Thomas and Lynnerup, Niels and Lawson, Daniel J. and Rasmussen, Simon and Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand and Kjær, Kurt H. and Durbin, Richard and Nielsen, Rasmus and Delaneau, Olivier and Werge, Thomas and Kristiansen, Kristian and Willerslev, Eske}},
  issn         = {{0028-0836}},
  keywords     = {{Ancient DNA; Pollen analysis}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  month        = {{01}},
  number       = {{7994}},
  pages        = {{329--337}},
  publisher    = {{Nature Publishing Group}},
  series       = {{Nature}},
  title        = {{100 ancient genomes show repeated population turnovers in Neolithic Denmark}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06862-3}},
  doi          = {{10.1038/s41586-023-06862-3}},
  volume       = {{625}},
  year         = {{2024}},
}