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What's normal? Immune profiling of human milk from healthy women living in different geographical and socioeconomic settings

Ruiz-Pavon, Lorena; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; García-Carral, Cristina; Manzano, Susana; McGuire, Michelle K.; Meehan, Courtney L.; McGuire, Mark A.; Williams, Janet E.; Foster, James and Sellen, Daniel W., et al. (2017) In Frontiers in Immunology 8(JUN).
Abstract

Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds,... (More)

Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds, including innate immunity factors (IL1ß, IL6, IL12, INFγ, TNFα), acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17), chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1ß), growth factors [IL5, IL7, epidermal growth factor (EGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TGFß2], and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), in milk produced by healthy women of different ethnicities living in different geographic, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental settings. Among the analyzed factors, IgA, IgG, IgM, EGF, TGFß2, IL7, IL8, Groa, and MIP1ß were detected in all or most of the samples collected in each population and, therefore, this specific set of compounds might be considered as the "core" soluble immune factors in milk produced by healthy women worldwide. This approach may help define which immune factors are (or are not) common in milk produced by women living in various conditions, and to identify host, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the immunological composition of this complex biological fluid.

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@article{11ebe5c6-1bda-4974-a7ff-b6c495bdb02b,
  abstract     = {<p>Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds, including innate immunity factors (IL1ß, IL6, IL12, INFγ, TNFα), acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17), chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1ß), growth factors [IL5, IL7, epidermal growth factor (EGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TGFß2], and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), in milk produced by healthy women of different ethnicities living in different geographic, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental settings. Among the analyzed factors, IgA, IgG, IgM, EGF, TGFß2, IL7, IL8, Groa, and MIP1ß were detected in all or most of the samples collected in each population and, therefore, this specific set of compounds might be considered as the "core" soluble immune factors in milk produced by healthy women worldwide. This approach may help define which immune factors are (or are not) common in milk produced by women living in various conditions, and to identify host, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the immunological composition of this complex biological fluid.</p>},
  articleno    = {696},
  author       = {Ruiz-Pavon, Lorena and Espinosa-Martos, Irene and García-Carral, Cristina and Manzano, Susana and McGuire, Michelle K. and Meehan, Courtney L. and McGuire, Mark A. and Williams, Janet E. and Foster, James and Sellen, Daniel W. and Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W. and Kamundia, Egidioh W. and Mbugua, Samwel and Moore, Sophie E. and Kvist, Linda J. and Otoo, Gloria E. and Lackey, Kimberly A. and Flores, Katherine and Pareja, Rossina G. and Bode, Lars and Rodíguez, Juan M.},
  keyword      = {Breastfeeding,Chemokines,Cytokines,Growth factors,Human milk,Immunoglobulins,Lactation},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {06},
  number       = {JUN},
  publisher    = {Frontiers Media S. A.},
  series       = {Frontiers in Immunology},
  title        = {What's normal? Immune profiling of human milk from healthy women living in different geographical and socioeconomic settings},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00696},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2017},
}