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Exploiting Spin Echo Decay in the Detection of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Signals

Somasundaram, Samuel D.; Jakobsson, Andreas LU ; Smith, John A. S. and Althoefer, Kasper (2007) In IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 45(4). p.925-933
Abstract
Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a radiofrequency technique that can be used to detect the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, such as the N-14 nucleus prevalent in many explosives and narcotics. In a typical application, one observes trains of decaying NQR echoes, in which the decay is governed by the spin echo decay time(s) of the resonant line(s). In most detection algorithms, these echoes are simply summed to produce a single echo with a higher signal-to-noise ratio, ignoring the decaying echo structure of the signal. In this paper, after reviewing current NQR signal models, we propose a novel NQR data model of the full echo train and detail why and how these echo trains are produced. Furthermore, we refine two recently proposed... (More)
Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a radiofrequency technique that can be used to detect the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, such as the N-14 nucleus prevalent in many explosives and narcotics. In a typical application, one observes trains of decaying NQR echoes, in which the decay is governed by the spin echo decay time(s) of the resonant line(s). In most detection algorithms, these echoes are simply summed to produce a single echo with a higher signal-to-noise ratio, ignoring the decaying echo structure of the signal. In this paper, after reviewing current NQR signal models, we propose a novel NQR data model of the full echo train and detail why and how these echo trains are produced. Furthermore, we refine two recently proposed approximative maximum-likelihood detectors that enable the algorithms to optimally exploit the proposed echo train model. Extensive numerical evaluations based on both simulated and measured NQR data indicate that the proposed detectors offer a significant improvement as compared to current state-of-the-art detectors. (Less)
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author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
explosives detection, multidimensional signal processing, quadrupole resonance, signal detection, SELECTIVE DETECTION, BURIED LANDMINES, NOISE, SPECTROSCOPY
in
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
volume
45
issue
4
pages
925 - 933
publisher
IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
external identifiers
  • scopus:33947671889
ISSN
0196-2892
DOI
10.1109/TGRS.2006.890413
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
104f71b6-80e4-4331-b01c-f9554f75beca (old id 1216163)
alternative location
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/36/4137841/04137868.pdf?tp=&arnumber=4137868&isnumber=4137841
date added to LUP
2008-09-30 10:08:56
date last changed
2017-07-30 04:44:12
@article{104f71b6-80e4-4331-b01c-f9554f75beca,
  abstract     = {Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a radiofrequency technique that can be used to detect the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, such as the N-14 nucleus prevalent in many explosives and narcotics. In a typical application, one observes trains of decaying NQR echoes, in which the decay is governed by the spin echo decay time(s) of the resonant line(s). In most detection algorithms, these echoes are simply summed to produce a single echo with a higher signal-to-noise ratio, ignoring the decaying echo structure of the signal. In this paper, after reviewing current NQR signal models, we propose a novel NQR data model of the full echo train and detail why and how these echo trains are produced. Furthermore, we refine two recently proposed approximative maximum-likelihood detectors that enable the algorithms to optimally exploit the proposed echo train model. Extensive numerical evaluations based on both simulated and measured NQR data indicate that the proposed detectors offer a significant improvement as compared to current state-of-the-art detectors.},
  author       = {Somasundaram, Samuel D. and Jakobsson, Andreas and Smith, John A. S. and Althoefer, Kasper},
  issn         = {0196-2892},
  keyword      = {explosives detection,multidimensional signal processing,quadrupole resonance,signal detection,SELECTIVE DETECTION,BURIED LANDMINES,NOISE,SPECTROSCOPY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {925--933},
  publisher    = {IEEE--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.},
  series       = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
  title        = {Exploiting Spin Echo Decay in the Detection of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Signals},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2006.890413},
  volume       = {45},
  year         = {2007},
}