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Stockholmarnas resvanor – mellan trängselskatt och klimatdebatt

Henriksson, Greger LU (2008) In TRITA-INFRA-FMS 2008:5, TRITA-SUS 2008:2
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen belyser vad resvanor är, hur storskaliga trafikreglerande åtgärder tas emot samt hur storstadsbornas resmönster kan bli miljömässigt hållbara på lång sikt. Jag diskuterar dessutom problem och möjligheter i skärningsområden mellan olika vetenskapliga discipliner som griper sig an dessa frågor.

De viktigaste slutsatserna gäller för det första det vetenskapliga begreppet vana. Varken begreppet eller företeelsen i sig är särskilt väl undersökt i samhälls- och kulturvetenskaperna. Begreppet töms i vissa sammanhang på sitt innehåll, t ex när resvanor används som en beteckning på en befolknings hela resmönster. Mina studier har pekat på (den trafik- och miljöpolitiska) betydelsen... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen belyser vad resvanor är, hur storskaliga trafikreglerande åtgärder tas emot samt hur storstadsbornas resmönster kan bli miljömässigt hållbara på lång sikt. Jag diskuterar dessutom problem och möjligheter i skärningsområden mellan olika vetenskapliga discipliner som griper sig an dessa frågor.

De viktigaste slutsatserna gäller för det första det vetenskapliga begreppet vana. Varken begreppet eller företeelsen i sig är särskilt väl undersökt i samhälls- och kulturvetenskaperna. Begreppet töms i vissa sammanhang på sitt innehåll, t ex när resvanor används som en beteckning på en befolknings hela resmönster. Mina studier har pekat på (den trafik- och miljöpolitiska) betydelsen av resor som inte är vanemässiga, men också på att vanemässiga resor har en trögföränderlighet som kan beskrivas som en buffert mellan erfarenhet och respons. Resvanor och färdmedelsval exemplifierar dessutom hur vanor är ett kulturellt fenomen eftersom det förgivettagna i resvanorna – ”så här gör man” – förmedlas i avgränsade lokala och sociala sammanhang. Människor skapar sina vanor i ett ömsesidigt och bara delvis uppmärksammat samspel med varandra och med sin materiella omgivning. Jag har också visat hur förändring under brytpunkter i levnadsloppet (främst avseende boende, sysselsättning och hushållssammansättning) kan innebära särskilt tydlig förändring av individuella resvanor.

För det andra har mitt studium av Stockholmsförsöket visat på stor variation och uppfinningsrikedom i hur Stockholms invånare hanterade det nya inslag i vardagslivet som trängselskatten innebar. Många lät exempelvis bli att köra bil med motivet att, inför sig själva och andra, symbolisk ta avstånd från avgifterna samt även från de politiska omständigheterna kring införandet av dessa. Detta bidrog intressant (och paradoxalt) nog till den stora trafikminskning som på en samhällelig nivå uppfattades som ett framgångsbevis för trängselskatten. När det gäller möjligheter till hållbar utveckling av resandet i storstaden är dock slutsatsen av studiet av stockholmsförsöket att miljöförbättrande, trängselminskande och i någon mån även trafikstyrande politiska åtgärder verkar efterfrågas av invånarna. Dessutom menar jag att vanor i mindre grad bör uppmärksammas som hinder och i högre grad som förutsättningar för hållbar utveckling. Stabilitet och långsiktighet i storstadens resmönster kan uppnås genom succesiv spridning (geografiskt, mellan åldersklasser o.s.v.) och upprätthållande av några olika slags resvanor som redan idag går att återfinna på en individuell nivå.

Slutligen har arbetet med att relatera ett antal vetenskapliga perspektiv till varandra utmynnat i att ytterligare samarbete verkar krävas mellan de vetenskaper som tagit som sin uppgift att studera olika nivåer av resandet i storstaden. Detta gäller bl.a. sociologi, kulturgeografi och etnologi i förhållande till transport- och samhällsekonomi samt psykologi. Ett flertal begrepp kan i likhet med begreppet resvanor behöva utvecklas genom att prövas i samarbete mellan disciplinerna. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis examines the concept of travel habits, public responses to large-scale traffic congestion regulations and how travel patterns of urban dwellers can be made environmentally sustainable in the long term. It also examines the interrelationships of different scientific disciplines dealing with urban travel. The main conclusions relate to the scientific concept of habit. This concept and the associated behaviours are not well-studied in the social and cultural sciences. Indeed, in some contexts the concept is bereft of meaning, e.g. when the notion of travel habits is used to represent the travel patterns of an entire population. This study demonstrated the (traffic and environmental policy) significance of non-habitual travel, but... (More)
This thesis examines the concept of travel habits, public responses to large-scale traffic congestion regulations and how travel patterns of urban dwellers can be made environmentally sustainable in the long term. It also examines the interrelationships of different scientific disciplines dealing with urban travel. The main conclusions relate to the scientific concept of habit. This concept and the associated behaviours are not well-studied in the social and cultural sciences. Indeed, in some contexts the concept is bereft of meaning, e.g. when the notion of travel habits is used to represent the travel patterns of an entire population. This study demonstrated the (traffic and environmental policy) significance of non-habitual travel, but also showed habitual travel to have inherent resistance to change, i.e. with habits acting as a buffer between experience and response. Case studies revealed travel habits to be a cultural phenomenon, since acceptable travel habits are expressed in a restricted local and social context. People develop their (travel) habits in mutual and only partly conscious interactions with each other and their material surroundings. The case studies also showed how changes occurring during critical points in the course of a life (primarily as regards housing, employment and household composition) brought about particularly clear changes in individual travel habits. Stability and sustainability in urban travel patterns could be achieved through the promotion and gradual spread (geographical, between age classes, etc.) of certain types of travel habits that are already in use at the individual level. Thus habits should be regarded less as an obstacle and more as an opportunity for sustainable development.

A case study of the Stockholm congestion charge trial showed wide variation and ingenuity in how Stockholmers dealt with this new feature of their daily lives. For example, many stopped many stopped driving into the charging zone in order to demonstrate, to themselves and others, their disagreement with the charge and the political circumstances surrounding its introduction. Interestingly (and paradoxically), this probably contributed to the overall major reduction in traffic, perceived at a societal level as evidence of the success of congestion charging. However, regarding the scope for sustainable development of urban travel, the conclusion from this appraisal of the Stockholm trial was that environmental, congestion-reducing and possibly traffic-controlling political measures appear to be in public demand.

Efforts in this thesis to interrelate the scientific perspectives of the different disciplines studying the various levels of urban travel (e.g. sociology, human geography and ethnology in relation to transport economics and psychology) indicated that further collaboration is required. As with the concept of travel habits, there are numerous concepts that could benefit from being developed and tested through interdisciplinary collaboration. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Ph.D. Hagman, Olle, Sociologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet
organization
alternative title
Travel habits of Stockholmers – congestion charging and climate debate
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
climate change, Travel habits, Stockholm county, traffic policy, environmental aspects, city of Stockholm, interdisciplinary research, congestion charging, the Stockholm trial, policy instruments, habits, mobility, urban transport, actor network theory
in
TRITA-INFRA-FMS 2008:5, TRITA-SUS 2008:2
pages
193 pages
publisher
Avdelningen för miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, SE-100 44 Stockholm
defense location
Auditoriet, Kulturen i Lund
defense date
2008-10-24 13:15
ISSN
1654-479X
ISBN
978-91-628-7611-1
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
4a7dd8da-ab6a-4452-ae4c-edf72bc061bb (old id 1230062)
date added to LUP
2008-10-07 15:47:15
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:45
@phdthesis{4a7dd8da-ab6a-4452-ae4c-edf72bc061bb,
  abstract     = {This thesis examines the concept of travel habits, public responses to large-scale traffic congestion regulations and how travel patterns of urban dwellers can be made environmentally sustainable in the long term. It also examines the interrelationships of different scientific disciplines dealing with urban travel. The main conclusions relate to the scientific concept of habit. This concept and the associated behaviours are not well-studied in the social and cultural sciences. Indeed, in some contexts the concept is bereft of meaning, e.g. when the notion of travel habits is used to represent the travel patterns of an entire population. This study demonstrated the (traffic and environmental policy) significance of non-habitual travel, but also showed habitual travel to have inherent resistance to change, i.e. with habits acting as a buffer between experience and response. Case studies revealed travel habits to be a cultural phenomenon, since acceptable travel habits are expressed in a restricted local and social context. People develop their (travel) habits in mutual and only partly conscious interactions with each other and their material surroundings. The case studies also showed how changes occurring during critical points in the course of a life (primarily as regards housing, employment and household composition) brought about particularly clear changes in individual travel habits. Stability and sustainability in urban travel patterns could be achieved through the promotion and gradual spread (geographical, between age classes, etc.) of certain types of travel habits that are already in use at the individual level. Thus habits should be regarded less as an obstacle and more as an opportunity for sustainable development.<br/><br>
A case study of the Stockholm congestion charge trial showed wide variation and ingenuity in how Stockholmers dealt with this new feature of their daily lives. For example, many stopped many stopped driving into the charging zone in order to demonstrate, to themselves and others, their disagreement with the charge and the political circumstances surrounding its introduction. Interestingly (and paradoxically), this probably contributed to the overall major reduction in traffic, perceived at a societal level as evidence of the success of congestion charging. However, regarding the scope for sustainable development of urban travel, the conclusion from this appraisal of the Stockholm trial was that environmental, congestion-reducing and possibly traffic-controlling political measures appear to be in public demand.<br/><br>
Efforts in this thesis to interrelate the scientific perspectives of the different disciplines studying the various levels of urban travel (e.g. sociology, human geography and ethnology in relation to transport economics and psychology) indicated that further collaboration is required. As with the concept of travel habits, there are numerous concepts that could benefit from being developed and tested through interdisciplinary collaboration.},
  author       = {Henriksson, Greger},
  isbn         = {978-91-628-7611-1},
  issn         = {1654-479X},
  keyword      = {climate change,Travel habits,Stockholm county,traffic policy,environmental aspects,city of Stockholm,interdisciplinary research,congestion charging,the Stockholm trial,policy instruments,habits,mobility,urban transport,actor network theory},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {193},
  publisher    = {Avdelningen för miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, SE-100 44 Stockholm},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {TRITA-INFRA-FMS 2008:5,  TRITA-SUS 2008:2},
  title        = {Stockholmarnas resvanor – mellan trängselskatt och klimatdebatt},
  year         = {2008},
}