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Using hidden Markov model to uncover processing states from eye movements in information search tasks

Simola, Jaana LU ; Salojarvi, Jarkko and Kojo, Ilpo (2008) In Cognitive Systems Research 9(4). p.237-251
Abstract
We study how processing states alternate during information search tasks. Inference is carried out with a discriminative hidden Markov model (dHMM) learned from eye movement data, measured in an experiment consisting of three task types: (i) simple word search, (ii) finding a sentence that answers a question and (iii) choosing a subjectively most interesting title from a list of ten titles. The results show that eye movements contain necessary information for determining the task type. After training, the dHMM predicted the task for test data with 60.2% accuracy (pure chance 33.3%). Word search and subjective interest conditions were easier to predict than the question-answer condition. The dHMM that best fitted our data segmented each... (More)
We study how processing states alternate during information search tasks. Inference is carried out with a discriminative hidden Markov model (dHMM) learned from eye movement data, measured in an experiment consisting of three task types: (i) simple word search, (ii) finding a sentence that answers a question and (iii) choosing a subjectively most interesting title from a list of ten titles. The results show that eye movements contain necessary information for determining the task type. After training, the dHMM predicted the task for test data with 60.2% accuracy (pure chance 33.3%). Word search and subjective interest conditions were easier to predict than the question-answer condition. The dHMM that best fitted our data segmented each task type into three hidden states. The three processing states were identified by comparing the parameters of the dHMM states to literature on eye movement research. A scanning type of eye behavior was observed in the beginning of the tasks. Next, participants tended to shift to states reflecting reading type of eye movements, and finally they ended the tasks in states which we termed as the decision states. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
search, information, hidden Markov model, eye movements, computational models, scanning, reading, decision process
in
Cognitive Systems Research
volume
9
issue
4
pages
237 - 251
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000259079200001
  • scopus:50849109169
ISSN
1389-0417
DOI
10.1016/j.cogsys.2008.01.002
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
19c5a657-9c15-4a81-ac79-e8d7dad4b6ed (old id 1247011)
date added to LUP
2008-11-17 11:27:17
date last changed
2017-09-17 05:50:04
@article{19c5a657-9c15-4a81-ac79-e8d7dad4b6ed,
  abstract     = {We study how processing states alternate during information search tasks. Inference is carried out with a discriminative hidden Markov model (dHMM) learned from eye movement data, measured in an experiment consisting of three task types: (i) simple word search, (ii) finding a sentence that answers a question and (iii) choosing a subjectively most interesting title from a list of ten titles. The results show that eye movements contain necessary information for determining the task type. After training, the dHMM predicted the task for test data with 60.2% accuracy (pure chance 33.3%). Word search and subjective interest conditions were easier to predict than the question-answer condition. The dHMM that best fitted our data segmented each task type into three hidden states. The three processing states were identified by comparing the parameters of the dHMM states to literature on eye movement research. A scanning type of eye behavior was observed in the beginning of the tasks. Next, participants tended to shift to states reflecting reading type of eye movements, and finally they ended the tasks in states which we termed as the decision states. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Simola, Jaana and Salojarvi, Jarkko and Kojo, Ilpo},
  issn         = {1389-0417},
  keyword      = {search,information,hidden Markov model,eye movements,computational models,scanning,reading,decision process},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {237--251},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Cognitive Systems Research},
  title        = {Using hidden Markov model to uncover processing states from eye movements in information search tasks},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogsys.2008.01.002},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2008},
}