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Combustion of Chemical Substances and the Impact on the Environment of the Fire Products: 1/3 Scale Room Furnace Experiments

Andersson, Berit LU ; Davie, F; Holmstedt, Göran LU ; Kenéz, Andras LU and Särdqvist, Stefan (1994) In LUTVDG/TVBB--3074--SE 3074.
Abstract
This report describes the results obtained from fire tests in a 1/3-scale room. The aim of

the study was to investigate how changes in external radiation and oxygen supply affect

the production of smoke and toxic gases. The ventilation was varied to simulate under- and well-ventilated fires. The thermal exposure to the materials was varied to simulate fires of different sizes. Fifty-nine tests were performed, with polystyrene, FR polystyrene, polypropylene, nylon and PVC. Measurements were made of the contents of O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and HC in the exhaust gases. The impact of external radiation was mainly to increase the pyrolysis rate, and thus the rate of heat release, and to drive the fire into under-ventilation. The... (More)
This report describes the results obtained from fire tests in a 1/3-scale room. The aim of

the study was to investigate how changes in external radiation and oxygen supply affect

the production of smoke and toxic gases. The ventilation was varied to simulate under- and well-ventilated fires. The thermal exposure to the materials was varied to simulate fires of different sizes. Fifty-nine tests were performed, with polystyrene, FR polystyrene, polypropylene, nylon and PVC. Measurements were made of the contents of O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and HC in the exhaust gases. The impact of external radiation was mainly to increase the pyrolysis rate, and thus the rate of heat release, and to drive the fire into under-ventilation. The degree of ventilation proved to have the greatest impact on the combustion efficiency. The smoke production was almost constant for polypropylene and nylon. The CO production appeared to be the most complex of the parameters to describe, and the expected increase in CO yield at low yields of CO2 could not be seen. The generation of NOx was low for the two substances without chemically bound nitrogen, but for nylon, the generation was significant. The production of low molecular weight HC was essentially constant for all three materials. Almost all the carbon was recovered in wellventilated fires, but at under-ventilated conditions, only 30% of the carbon from the he1 was detected. The toxic potency of the exhaust gases was estimated using the N-gas model, and proved to be relatively low. Lack of oxygen and the production of carbon oxide had the greatest impact on the toxicity for polystyrene and polypropylene, while NO, represented the main part for nylon. The survival fraction and the decomposition products from the original materials are not considered in the model. It can therefore not be assumed that the model reflects all aspects of the toxicity problem. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Book/Report
publication status
published
subject
in
LUTVDG/TVBB--3074--SE
volume
3074
pages
35 pages
publisher
Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Lund University
ISSN
1102-8246
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
fd95dac4-1eff-409d-a3e5-efc405c2cd28 (old id 1267632)
date added to LUP
2008-11-17 10:09:38
date last changed
2016-04-16 03:49:37
@techreport{fd95dac4-1eff-409d-a3e5-efc405c2cd28,
  abstract     = {This report describes the results obtained from fire tests in a 1/3-scale room. The aim of<br/><br>
the study was to investigate how changes in external radiation and oxygen supply affect<br/><br>
the production of smoke and toxic gases. The ventilation was varied to simulate under- and well-ventilated fires. The thermal exposure to the materials was varied to simulate fires of different sizes. Fifty-nine tests were performed, with polystyrene, FR polystyrene, polypropylene, nylon and PVC. Measurements were made of the contents of O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and HC in the exhaust gases. The impact of external radiation was mainly to increase the pyrolysis rate, and thus the rate of heat release, and to drive the fire into under-ventilation. The degree of ventilation proved to have the greatest impact on the combustion efficiency. The smoke production was almost constant for polypropylene and nylon. The CO production appeared to be the most complex of the parameters to describe, and the expected increase in CO yield at low yields of CO2 could not be seen. The generation of NOx was low for the two substances without chemically bound nitrogen, but for nylon, the generation was significant. The production of low molecular weight HC was essentially constant for all three materials. Almost all the carbon was recovered in wellventilated fires, but at under-ventilated conditions, only 30% of the carbon from the he1 was detected. The toxic potency of the exhaust gases was estimated using the N-gas model, and proved to be relatively low. Lack of oxygen and the production of carbon oxide had the greatest impact on the toxicity for polystyrene and polypropylene, while NO, represented the main part for nylon. The survival fraction and the decomposition products from the original materials are not considered in the model. It can therefore not be assumed that the model reflects all aspects of the toxicity problem.},
  author       = {Andersson, Berit and Davie, F and Holmstedt, Göran and Kenéz, Andras and Särdqvist, Stefan},
  institution  = {Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Lund University},
  issn         = {1102-8246},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {35},
  series       = {LUTVDG/TVBB--3074--SE},
  title        = {Combustion of Chemical Substances and the Impact on the Environment of the Fire Products: 1/3 Scale Room Furnace Experiments},
  volume       = {3074},
  year         = {1994},
}